QUESTION WITH ANSWER - AEN GROUP ‘B’ EXAM 2008


Central Railway 

L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING

 19 – 01 - 2008

Q.1.- Write short notes on any Five  of the following -                             
      i.  Part I & Part II Audit Reports.
     ii.  Stock Sheet.
    iii.  Final Bill.
   iv.  Non scheduled items.
    v.  Briefing Notes.
   vi.  Write Off.
  vii.  Variation statements in Contracts.

Ans.-
( I ) Part I & Part II Audit Reports –
The DAuO conduct inspection of the executive and subordinate offices of the entire division once in 3 years. Programme is made in advance and the concerned officers are advised in advance so as to enable them to keep their records ready.
The reports, as a result of such inspections consist of two parts –
Part I – Contains more important irregularities.
Part II – Contains minor irregularties.
The final disposal of Part II audit notes rests with the Accounts Officer and no reply to the divisional audit Officer is necessary. However, when required these should be made available to the DAuO.
Replied to Part I are to be submitted by the Divisional Officers to the DAuO through the Divisional Accounts Officer, as early as possible ( within 2 months ) indicating there in the action taken. The closure of the objections rests with the ADuO.

( ii ) Stock  Sheets  -
The proper custody and accountal of stores is the prime duty and function of an executive or the stockholder. To ensure this verification of stock is done either departmentally or by the Accounts stock verifier. The stock verification sheets are prepared giving the numerical balances of items as in the ledgers and actual stock. The verification between ledger balances and actual stock are clearly brought out. The verifier and the stockholder jointly sign these sheets.
One copy of the sheet is kept with the stock verifier and three copies are handed over to the stockholder. The stock holder is required to offer his explanation for variation and recon cite the discrepancies and submit the sheets in duplicate to the divisional office for scrutiny and acceptance. These sheets are then forwarded by divisional office along with their remark to the Accounts.
Clearance of out standing S.V. Sheets is closely watched by the department and also by accounts. At the time of handing over charge the stock holder is required to clear the out standing S.V. Sheets for any reason the same should be recorded in the handing over notes by the stock holder.

( iii ) Final Bill :-
The final bill prepared on form No. E 1338 should be  used for making final payments . i.e. On closing running accounts for works . Normally only one final bill should be prepared against an agreement or work order . But in cases where groups of annual repair works are included in one agreement or work order there is no objection to more than one final bill being prepared on the completion of each group or certain groups.

( iv ) Non-Scheduled Items -
The practice of calling item wise rates to be quoted by the tenderer should be avoided as for as possible. It is however observed that large number of non-scheduled items is being operated for various types of works. Absence of a suitable item in the master schedule is cited as the main reason for adopting non-scheduled items.
It is further noticed that proper care and attention is not being given to the operation of NS items in respect of description, specifications, mode of measurements, rate etc. causing ambiguity and vagueness in NS items which, at times, may result in over payment to the contractors.
With a view to safeguarding against the above inadequacies, it has been decided that introduction of NS items will henceforth be subject to the following: -
    i.        NS items shall be included in the tender with the specific approval of Sr. DEN (Co) / Dy. CE (C).
   ii.        NS items shall be operated only when it is unavoidable & should satisfy the following criteria –
a)      No item with similar description is available in the master schedule, which can serve the purpose.
b)      The description of NS item is not prepared by combining more than one SSR item.
c)      The descriptions of NS items are not prepared by splitting the existing SSR item into more than one NS item.
d)      Wherever it is expedient the NS item can be formed by combining / splitting the existing SSR items with the specific approval of HQ.
  iii.        The description and the specifications of NS item should be complete & unambiguous. No component of NS item should be overlapping with the description of any of the existing SSR items included in the tender, since such overlapping may lead to double payment for that particular component of NS item.
  iv.        Special conditions specific to the NS items should be included in the tender agreement.
   v.        Mode of measurement of NS items should be clearly spelt out.
  vi.        Proper rate analysis should be prepared for the NS items taking into account the prevailing market rates as well as the past accepted rates for identical NS items duly modified for geographical and conditions which may influence the rates.
 vii.        Basic rate for NS item shall be prepared at par with standard schedule of rates in items. For this purpose the market rate or the analysed rate of the NS item shall be discounted in accordance with percentage above / below accepted recently for SSR items of concerned. The basic rate thus worked out shall be vetted by Associate finance.
viii.        In all the new tenders, the tenderer should be advised to quote common percentage above / below for SSR items as well as for NS items. Such a common percentage of rates will facilitate quicker evaluation of tender and its finalisation. Besides the possibility of vitiation of tender as a result of variation in quantities of different items will also be eliminated.

( v ) Briefing Note –
After the tender opening the preparation of briefing notes is another serious activity in the process of tender finalisation. The briefing note is prepared by the executive office giving all facts, details, conditions, etc to assist the tender committee in finalisation of the tenders.
The tabulated comparative statement and briefing note both in duplicate together with the original tenders shall be sent for scrutiny to the section officer deputed for the purpose. The statement should be signed by him in token of his verification.
It is an authentic factual information, to be submitted to a tender committee, on various aspects of offers received against a tender notice, their completeness, credentials of tenderers, rates, special conditions, etc.  Benchmarking of offers received in present tender with respect to offers accepted in near past for similar works in similar conditions is an important item of briefing note.  Briefing note helps the TC in reducing the time to be taken in arriving at their recommendations.  Briefing note serves as one of the many inputs that the TC may consider while arriving at their recommendations.

( vi ) Write off  
When ever any sums become accrued due to the railway for any kind of services rendered of sums due to the recovered under extent procedure from staff / Parties considered as irrecoverable either fully or partially are said to be written off under competent authorities sanction with out collection of effecting recoveries. The communications authorizing non recovery / not collection are called write off sanction.

( vii ) Variation statement in contracts -
The Engineer on behalf of the Railway shall be entitled by order in writing to enlarge or extend, diminish or reduce the works or make any alterations in their design, character position, site, quantities, dimensions or in the method of their execution or in the combination and use of materials for the execution there of or to order any additional work to be done or any works not to be done and the contractor will not be entitled to any compensation for any increase/reduction in the quantities of work but will be paid only for the actual amount of work done and for approved materials supplied against a specific order.
Unless otherwise specified in the special conditions of the contract, the accepted variation in quantity of each individual item of the contract would be up to 25% of the quantity originally contracted, except in case of foundation work. The contractor shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates and shall not be entitled to any claim or any compensation whatsoever up to the limit of 25% variation in quantity of individual item of works.
In case of earthwork, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of earth work and variation in the quantities of individual classifications of soil shall not be subject to this limit. In case of foundation work, no variation limit shall apply and the work shall be carried out by the contractor on agreed rates irrespective of any variation.
In case of Zonal work the limit of 20 % variation in quantity of individual item of works and 25% variation on work order subject to not exceed from maximum limit of work order cost 1 lack. 
Variation in Contract Quantities are as under -                               
Up to + 25% of Agr. Value: Same Rates
> + 25% and up to + 40% : 2% reduction in rates
> + 40% and up to + 50% : Additional 2% reduction
Execution of quantities beyond + 50% of overall Agreement Value to be done through fresh tender or by negotiating rates with existing contractor.
If variation is beyond –25% of C.V. negotiation is not required to be done
Include regulatory mechanism (for variations) in contract itself.

Q.2.- Write short notes on any Five  of the following -                                  5 x 5 = 25 marks.
      i.  Minor Penalties under D & AR.
     ii.  Conduct Rules.
    iii.  Suspension.
   iv.  Productivity linked bonus.
    v.  Permanent Negotiating Machinery.
   vi.  Final Settlement on superannuation.
  vii.  Service Record.                     
Ans.-
( I ) Minor Penalties -
1)    Censure.
2)    Withholding of Promotions for a specified period.
3)      Recovery from pay of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the government or railway administration by negligence or breach of orders.
( a ) Withholding of Privilege Passes or PTO’s or both.
             ( b ) Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for period not exceeding 3 years. NC and not adversely affecting pension.
4)    Withholding of increments of pay for a specified Period ( NC / C )

( ii ) Conduct Rules –
The code of conduct of Government servant is both written and unwritten. The written code of conduct is therefore not exhaustive. Every employee is bound to observe himself in his dealing with the public as compatible with his employment. An improper conduct therefore, outside the employment is likely to give rise to disciplinary proceedings.
Every Government servant is Railway servant is bound to observe certain rules of conduct and discipline in the discharge of duties. The code of discipline which is binding on the Government servants, as stated above is both written and unwritten. The Government servant is expected to maintain absolute integrity and devotion to duty and he is at all times bound to conduct himself in accordance with the specific or implied orders of Government regulating and conduct which may be in force.

( iii ) Suspension –
Suspension means the suspension of official activities of a Railway servant. The suspension is not a penalty. It is an instantaneous remedy required to save any further damage being caused.
A servant may be placed under suspension where a disciplinary proceeding against him is contemplated or is pending or where in the opinion of the competent authority the employee has engaged himself in activities that can be termed to be prejudicial to  the security of the state or where a case against him in respect of any criminal offence is under investigation, inquiry or trial. 

( iv ) Productivity linked bonus-
The grant of productivity-linked bonus is intended to provide substantial motivation towards achieving higher productivity by way of increased out put by the employees and improved quality of service.
The productivity shall be determined on the basis of revenue traffic tone kilometers achieved each year, derived from thee audited and financial year 1977-78 has been adopted as base year for this purpose.
The scheme is applicable to –
a)    All Railway employees other than Railway protection force.
b)    Casual Labour having temporary status and substitutes with not less than 120 days continuous service.
c)    Daily rated casual labour employed of projects having completed continuous service of 180 days.
P.L.B. shall be payable to all class III & IV staff.

 

( v ) Permanent Negotiating Machinery (P N M)-
Two Federation of Union All Indian Railway men’s federation (AIRF) & National Federation of Indian Railway (NFIR) men have been recognized by Ministry of Railways. All the Railway units of the unions affiliated to these Federations have also been given recognition.   
With a view to maintain contact with the labour to resolve disputes & differences between labour & management & to maintain healthy industrial relations the Railway Board have set up Machinery to have a periodical dialogue with both the recognized Federations which is called PNM.
The machinery functions in three tiers as under: -
The Railway Level or Zonal Level :-
At this level meeting between the recognized unions and administration are held     at Divisional level/ workshop level and zonal level. The cases which are not decided at Divl. / workshop level are referred at zonal level. PNM meetings with each recognized union at Divl. Level is held once in two months, while at Head quarters level it is held once in a quarter.
The Railway Board level :-
Matters connected with the revision of pay & allowances and other policy matters for bettering service conditions. Which are not decided at zonal level are taken up by the Federation for discussion at Board’s level in this forum. PNM meeting at Board’s level is held once in a quarter.
The Tribunal level :-
Cases in which agreement is not reached between the Federation and the Railway Board and the matters are of sufficient importance are referred to an adhoc Railway Tribunal composed of representatives from the Railway Administration and Labour presided over by a neutral chairman.

( vi ) Final Settlement on superannuation –
Final Settlement on superannuation to be done on basis of emoluments and average emoluments which have primary significance in determination of pension and retirement Gratuity. Gratuity is normally based on emoluments and pension is based on average emoluments.
Emoluments for the purpose of determination of pension / Gratuities include only basic pay.
Average emoluments is the average of the emoluments drawn during the last ten months of service.
Pension is determined on the basis of average emoluments. Gratuity is based on the emoluments drawn at the time of retirement.
Full pension is admissible to an employee who retires after completing qualifying service of not less than thirty three years and the amount of pension is determined at 50% of the average emoluments.        

( vii ) Service Record –
For each non gazetted Railway servant whether pensionable or non pensionable , a service book shall be maintained in prescribed from and kept in the custody of the head of the office. When such a railway servant is officiating in a gazetted appointment his service book should continue to be kept by the head of the office to which the railway servant permanently belongs but when he is confirmed in such appointment, his service book should be sent to the Account Officer concerned for record.
The service records of gazetted officers are maintained by the Account Officer. Service Book are the records of all events of railway servant during the service and all particulars about the employee on the record at the time of appointment. All particulars about leave due availed and at his credit is recorded in the leave sheet attached to the service Book.

Q.3.- Write short notes on any Ten   of the following -                                  10 x 10 = 100 marks.
a) Importance of Water Cement ratio in concrete.                                   
b) Various types of small track machines.
c) Definition of Distressed Bridge and its rehabilitation.
d) Different type of patrollings on track.
e) Official Language Implementation Committee.
f)  Bridge Bearings.
g) Pre tamping and Post tamping works for tamping machines.
h) Steps to be taken for spreading Hindi Rajbhasha on Indian Railways.
i)  Action required to increase earnings by Engineering department on the Railway.
j)  Working in a Ballast depot.
k) Precaution required to be taken for avoiding buckling of track.
l)  Actions to improve TGI value of track.
m) Painting of girder bridges.
n) License fee and Way leave charges for Railway land.
Ans.-
( a )  Importance of Water Cement ratio in concrete -
The ratio of the volume of water to volume of cement used in concrete mix is termed as water cement ratio. As a result of experiments it is observed that for a given proportion of ingredients in a concrete mix, there is almost a fixed amount of water, which gives maximum strength of concrete. In case the water used is less, the resultant concrete will be comparatively dry, difficult to place in position and may pose problems in compaction. Moreover with less water complete setting of cement can not be ensured and hence the strength of concrete get reduced appreciably. On the other hand, in case the water is more it would result in formation of excessive voids and honey combing in the set concrete, there by reducing its density, strength and durability. Thus water cement ratio serves as a yard stick for obtaining concrete of desired strength. The lower the ratio, the greater is the strength of the mix. A rich mix of concrete gives higher strength than a lean mix, not because of more cement but it is on account of the fact that concrete can be used with a lower water cement ratio.

( b ) Small Track machines –
Various small track machines are as under -
( I ) Rail Drilling Machine.    ( ii ) Rail Sawing machine.    ( iii ) Sleeper drilling machine.
( iv ) Portable rail grinding machine.   ( v ) Flexible Shaft Grinder. ( vi ) Hydraulic Rail Bender.     ( vii )  Rail Joint Straighter.        ( viii )  Hydraulic track lifting cum slewing device.                           ( ix ) Non infringing track jacks.                      ( x ) Light weight Hydraulic Jack.
( xi ) Rail straightness recorders.  ( xii ) Long rail skates.  ( xiii )  Insertion Tool for elastic rail clip. ( xiv ) Special tool for handling of concrete sleepers.          ( xv ) Multipurpose portable welder.   
( xvi )  Chamfering equipment.                                  ( xvii ) Semi mechanized ballast screener.
( xviii ) Rail reprofiling machine.         ( xix )  Rail creep adjuster.            ( xx ) Sleeper Squarer.
( xxi ) Ballast Compactor.                  ( xxii )  Rail Tensor.                      ( xxiii ) Rail Lubricators.  
( xxiv ) Bolt/ Nut Tightener.    ( xxv ) Mono Rail wheel barrow.
Rail Drilling Machine – This is a self powered small portable machine used for drilling holes in the rails for fish bolts etc. The machine is light weight and the total weight including all attachments is about 50 kg. The machine can drill holes from 22 mm to 35 mm dia in all types of rails. The time required for drilling a hole varies from 3 to 5 minutes including attaching and removal of the machine unit.
Rail Sawing machine – Rail Sawing machine is a self powered machine which can be used for cutting the rails. The saw frame and blade are precision adjusted in cutting position by means of a shaft allowing displacement along with it is approximately 30 mm. The machine generally weight about 75 kg and have cutting height and length up to 190 mm. The machine is able to deliver a cut within 5 to 15 minutes.

( c ) Definition of Distressed Bridge and its rehabilitation -
Distressed Bridge - A distressed bridge is one which  shows any physical sign of deterioration of its physical condition, indicating  the need for rehabilitation through special repairs, strengthening or rebuilding (including replacement of girders
rehabilitation of distressed bridges -
1. The Divisional / Senior Divisional Engineer, while including a bridge in the distressed bridge list, should also indicate the priority classification depending on nature and severity of distress, as detailed below :
i) Category I should include those bridges where the distress is such that the rehabilitation work is required to be taken up immediately.
ii) Category II should include all  those bridges  which do not fall in Category I. They may be taken up for rehabilitation on a programmed basis.
2. Some Bridges may have to be kept under observation after minor attention like grouting with provision of tell tales. During the period of observation, if it  is found that the defects reappear, the bridge may be included in category I or II, as the case may be.

( d ) Types of Patrolling.
1. Keyman's Daily Patrol.-  Every portion of the permanent way shall be inspected daily on foot by the keyman of the beat in which the portion of the track falls. Provided that the interval between such inspections may, under special instructions, issued by Chief Engineer be increased to once in two days in the case of specified section of lines with light and infrequent traffic.
2. Gang Patrol during Abnormal Rainfall or Storm. -  This patrol should, in case of heavy rainfall, confine its inspection to known points of danger, such as cutting or culverts likely to scour, banks affected by tanks likely to breach and bridge approaches. In case of high winds.
3.Night Patrolling during Monsoon. - During the monsoon, certain section of the railway line, as may be specified, shall be patrolled to detect damage by flood, such as breaches, settlements, slips and scours and immediate action taken to protect trains.                            
4.Security Patrolling during Civil Disturbance and on Special occasions - On apprehension of a Civil disturbance, the Divisional authorities should contact the local Civil authority and arrange, as circumstances may warrant for security patrolling of the railway line. This may be arranged on the pattern of the monsoon patrolling with modifications, as deemed necessary, in consultation with civil authorities.
      Security patrolling on special occasions should be carried out according to the special instructions issued by the administration.
     The primary duty of the patrolman employed on Security patrolling shall be to protect trains against any condition of danger, such as tampering with track or obstruction placed on line.
5 .Hot weather Patrolling for L.W.R./C.W.R. -  Hot weather patrol is carried out when the rail temperature reaches td + 20 degree or above.
6. Cold weather Patrolling for L.W.R./C.W.R. - Cold weather patrol  is carried out when the rail temperature reaches td - 30 degree or below.
7. Watchmen at vulnerable locations. - In addition to patrolmen, stationary watchmen are posted at known or likely locations of danger or trouble.

( e ) Official Language Implementation Committee -
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( f ) Bridge Bearing -                           
The bearing transfers the forces coming from the superstructure to the substructure. It also allows for necessary movements in the superstructure which are caused by temperature variations. The following types of bearings are generally used.
a) Sliding bearing - permitting rotation and translation
b) Rocker and roller bearings  - permitting rotation and translation respectively.
c) Elastomeric bearings - Made of natural or synthetic rubber of shore hardness of approximately 50 to 70. They are very stiff in resisting volume change but are very flexible when subjected to shear. They are generally reinforced with steel plates in alternate layers to reduce bulging. When used with a steel or concrete girder these permit moderate longitudinal movements and small rotations at the ends. These are provided for bridges having RCC or Pre stressed girders and can take deflection a well as movement
d) P.T.F.E. Bearings - The PTFE can be unfilled or filled with glass fibre or other reinforcing material. These are used either to provide rotation by sliding over cylindrical or spherical surfaces or to provide horizontal sliding movement over flat surface or a combination of both. Where there are large displacements accompanied with relatively small loadings, as in case of centrifugal loads, wind loads or seismic loads, PTFE sliding bearings are utilised.

( g ) Pre tamping and Post tamping works for tamping machines. –
Pre Tamping works for tamping machines -
i) Layout including spacing of sleepers as per relevant drawings shall be ensured.
ii) The nose of the crossing may get battered or worn or the sleepers below it may get warped or bent. In such cases, the crossing should be reconditioned or replaced and sleepers below the crossing should be attended.
iii) High points on the turn out and approaches should be determined and general lift should be decided. General lift of minimum 10 mm must be given.
Post Tamping works for tamping machines -
The Section Engineer (P. Way) shall pay attention to the following items:-
i) Checking and Tightening of loose fittings.
ii) Replacement of broken fittings.
iii) The ballast shall be dressed neatly. Proper consolidation of ballast between the sleeper shall be done.
iv) Final track parameters should be recorded with the help of recorders provided in the tamping machine.
(v) The fixtures like check rails removed during pre-tamping operation should be restored.

( h ) Steps to be taken for spreading Hindi Rajbhasha on Indian Railways. -

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( I ) Action required to increase earnings by Engineering department on the Railway.
For increase the earnings by Engineering department on the Railway action required as per works manual para 828 –
Once a year each AEN will arrange a detailed survey of existing sources of earnings like grass, fruit trees, fish ponds etc., from Railway land including outstanding dues to be recovered.
Immediate action for issue of auction notice etc., will be taken to have the maximum earnings out of these sources.  Targets will be set under the following heads and the same will be advised to Headquarters for the corresponding year, based on the survey of existing resources and outstanding dues (including those  of commercial department) to be recovered.
    i.  Licensing of land for grow more food
   ii.  Sale of grass rights
  iii.  Sale of fruits of trees
  iv.  Sale of fishing rights
   v.  Sale of dry and matured trees
  vi.  Licensing of land for Teh Bazari and  for shopping purposes.
 vii.  Licensing of land for other purposes.
viii.  Licensing of land to oil companies.
  ix.  Way leave facilities and easement rights along road and rail approaches.
            Section Engineer (P.Way/Works) and AENs during routine trolley inspection will make entries of such sources in their diaries which will also be checked by higher officers during inspection.
            Monthly progress of earnings under above heads shall be reported by Section Engineer (P.Way/Works) and AEN to Divisional Office who shall report the same to headquarters.

( j ) Working in a Ballast depot. –
Collection and Training out of Ballast
The collection of ballast can either be done-
(a) by resorting to alongside collection.
(b) by collecting at depots and training them out in ballast trains.
The mode of collection will have to be decided taking into account proximity of quarry, availability of good stone ballast, service roads along side the line for carrying of ballast,availability of ballast trains, the turn round of ballast trains and availability of block for unloading.
Depot collection of ballast
(1) Register of ballast collection and training out - The Inspector in-charge of the depot shall maintain a register showing all transactions in respect of stone ballast,moorum and sand ballast. If the depot deals with boulders also, the same should also find a place in a register.
(2) Loading from the Depot - At all depots the following instructions should be followed :
(a) The space along the sides of the Railway siding, meant for stacking, should be divided into convenient number of zones and demarcated.
(b) For each depot, a depot diagram shall be maintained, which should indicate the site details of all the measured stacks.
(c) Each stack in each zone should be serially numbered.
(d) The operations of collecting and training out materials should not be carried out at the same time in any one zone.
(e) The ground on which the stacks are made should be selected and levelled.
(f) Where practicable, no stack should be less than one meter in height.
(g) Measurements should be taken of complete stacks. The measured stacks should be identified suitably by lime sprinkling or any other method.
(h)Before training out of Ballast or other material is undertaken on contract, a copy of each of the depot diagram should be kept with the permanent Way Inspector, the Ballast Train Guard and the Contractor, the original being with the Assistant Engineer. As each stack is lifted, this should be recorded on the depot diagram which should always be kept up-to-date. Challans should be prepared after loading the ballast into wagons.
(3) Quantity trained out – When settling accounts for training out ballast, checks should be made by comparing the quantities as per stack measurements recorded in the measurement books, with those deduced from wagon measurements as recorded in the ballast train reports, due allowance being given for sinkage as per rules. Should the wagon measurements differ from the recorded measurements by more than 5 percent, the matter should be investigated immediately and reported to the Divisional Engineer. In special cases direct measurement of ballast in wagons may be resorted to with the approval of the Chief Engineer.
Along side Collections (Cess Collections)
In the case of along side collections the Inspector-in-charge should maintain separate register showing the measurement of stacks as well as its disposition(Between km. to km.). The stacks should be serially numbered between the successive posts. Any entry should be made in the register whenever the stacks are removed and ballast put into the track. Record should show the place where the removed ballast has been used with the date of removal.
Unloading Ballast along the line
When unloading ballast along the line care shall be taken that the heaps at the sides and the centre are clear of prescribed running dimensions. Ballast shall not be unloaded upon signal wires or point rods. Care should be taken to ensure that no stone is left inadvertently between the stock rail and tongue rail.
Surplus Ballast along the line
All surplus ballast left along side the line should be collected and stacked in regular heaps and not left scattered on the slopes to be overgrown by grass and lost.

( k ) Precaution required to be taken for avoiding buckling of track.-
  1. Proper expansion gaps in SWR portion of track should be provided as specified in the manual.
  2. As buckling are likely to occur between 11 to 17 hrs rosters of key men should be so adjusted that there is proper patrolling of LWR portions of the track when temperature exceeds td + 200 C.
  3. No work of track maintenance including packing laying aligning major / minor realignment of tracks.
  4. Screening of ballast should be taken out side specified temperature.
  5. Where ever the track structure is week and vulnerable for buckling immediate action should be taken to strengthen the same by provision of extra shoulder ballast.
  6. Increase of sleeper density, provision of adequate anti creep fastening, replacement and tightening of missing and loose fastening and such other measures.

( l ) Actions to improve TGI value of track.
Following items should be attended to improve TGI value of track in a section:
1.    Alignment survey and correction specially on short chord.
2.    Unevenness is corrected for left and right rail separately.
3.    Rehabilitation of weak formation should be planned and work should be carried out on programme basis.
4.    Attention of fish plated joint as required, including Buffer rail and SEJ.
5.    Attention to transition length of curve.
6.     Attention to approaches of LC, bridge, points & crossing.
7.    Attention to pumping & blowing joints.
8.    Providing clean ballast cushions.
9.    Replacement of pitted rails and wheel burns etc.

( m ) Painting of girder bridges.
Scheme of painting of bridge girders as laid down in the Bridge Manual for areas with severe corrosion and not severe corrosion are as under -       
 Protective Coatings by painting
Correct surface preparation of the steel to receive the paint:
a) The minimum requirements of a surface prepared for painting are:
i) It should be clean, dry and free from contaminants.
ii) It should be rough enough to ensure adhesion of the paint film.
b) Any one or a combination of the following methods –
i) Manual hand cleaning . ii) Cleaning with power driven tools . iii) Blast cleaning. iv) Flame cleaning. v) washed with lukewarm water.  vi) Temporary coatings. 
Choice of suitable paints :
The following system of paints may be adopted for painting of Bridge girders :
a) In areas where there is no severe corrosion -
i) Priming coat : One heavy coat of ready-mixed paint red lead priming to IS : 102
ii) Finishing coat :
Two cover coats of red oxide paint to IS : 123 or any other approved paint applied over the primer coats.
b) In areas where corrosion is severe -
i) Priming Coat :Two coats of ready mixed paint red lead Priming to IS : 102
ii) Finishing coat :Two coats of aluminium paint to IS : 2339.
c) In case where the priming coat is in good condition the steel work is painted with two coats of ready mixed red oxide paint to IS : 123.                     
Conditions for obtaining good painting :
a) Painting should be done in dry and reasonably warm conditions.
b) Painting at night and in the early hours of morning should be avoided.
c) Painting should be avoided during rainy season.
d) Control of paint film thickness.
Periodical through painting :
The entire steel work of a girder should be painted at regular intervals which may vary from six years in arid zones to one year in highly corrosive areas.

( n ) License fee and Way leave charges for Railway land.
License fee -                          
For fixation of license fee for Railway land licensed to private parties, a return of six per cent on the market value of the land as assessed by the local revenue. authorities should be treated as "standard rent". But in actual licensing out, Railway Administration should aim at obtaining the best possible rent. They may accept in individual cases, variation from "standard rent" on merits and for good and sufficient reasons. The minimum rent in such cases should be Rs. 100/- per annum.
The assessment of market value of the land as made by the revenue authorities need not always be treated as final or binding. It may require to be suitably adjusted and escalated if sufficient time has passed since the last assessment was made or if information was available with the railway of higher prices having been paid for private and other transactions of land in the vicinity.
Way leave charge –
If no other means of access to properties/ houses adjoining railway land are available way leave facility may be granted by railways for the following-
 i.        Pathway( 1.00 m. vide ) across railway line – One time recovery of Rs. 6400/-.
ii.        Water pipe line Xing for agriculture – One time recovery of 12800 /-.
iii.        Electric line for private party –  One time recovery of 12800 /-.
iv.        Electric line for Government agencies- One time recovery of 12800 /-.
v.        Water / Sewage line up to 300 mm dial.- One time recovery of 12800 /-.
In the above cases Agreement for 35 Yrs and renewal after every 35 yeas.
vi.        Passage ( 1.00 m to 3.00 m ) for vehicles scooters etc for private parties – 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 5000 P.a.
vii.        Passage ( 1.00 m to 3.00 m ) for Government bodies - 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
viii.        Under ground Water / Sewage line above 300 mm dial.-    6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
ix.        Under ground / over head electrical Xings not covered under 3 above and other for cable / OFC - 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
x.        Open drain and over ground water / sewage / gas / oil pipe lines for private or Government bodies – 10% of market values subject to minimum of Rs 20000/-.
xi.        Under ground oil / gas pipe lines -  10% of market values subject to minimum of Rs 20000/-.
xii.        Optical fiber cable crossing ( width not more than 0.50 m. )  -6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
It should be noted that these charges are only for way leave facility , this should not be treated as license fee.
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Central Railway SUPPLEMENTARY L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING

16-02-2008

Q.1.- Distinguish between any Five  of the following :                            
a.    Earnest money and Security Deposit.
b.    Final Modification and Material Modification.
c.    General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract.
d.    Abstract Estimate and Detailed Estimate.
e.    Part I & Part II Audit Reports.
f.     Special limited tender and Open tender.
g.    Preliminary Works Programme and Pink Book.
Ans.- ( a ) Earnest money and Security Deposit –
Earnest money –
The Tenderer shall be required to deposit Earnest money with the tender for the due performance with the stipulation to keep the offer open till such date as specified in the tender. Earnest money should be either in cash, deposit receipts, pay orders, demand draft.
The earnest money shall be 2% of estimated tender value. The earnest money shall be rounded to the nearest Rs. 10/- . Earnest money shall be applicable for all modes of tendering
Security Deposit – A Security deposit is taken for the satisfaction of and efficient execution of the work within the agreed time from contractors. Such Security deposit may also be percentage deduction from on accounts bills of contractors called as retention Money usually 10% of the gross amount of bill. The scale of Security Deposit is as under –
  1. Contracts up to one lack in value 10% of the value of contract.
  2. Next one lack in value 7½% of the value of contract.
  3. For 3rd one lack and above in value 5% of the value of contract. Subject to maximum of 10 lacks.
The amount over and above 3 lacks to be recovered from the progressive bills of the contractor at the rate of 10% till it reaches the required value.

( b ) Final Modification and Material Modification.-
Final Modification :- 
Railway administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant of appropriation . This is done through the submission of modification statements.
The third review is conducted in the month of February every year and is known as final modification. Actual expenditure during first Nine months and approximate expenditure for the Tenth month is reviewed and compared with: -
1.   Budget grant/ revised grant (if received)
2.   Budget proportion.
3.   Actual expenditure during the last financial year.
4.   Actual expenditure during corresponding period of the last financial year.
Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
    i.  Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
   ii.  Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
  iii.  Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
  iv.  A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
   v.  Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
  vi.  The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
 vii.  Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
viii.  The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
  ix.  Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.

( c ) General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract -
General Conditions of Contract – Operation of a contract is based upon the various stipulation contained in the General condition of contract. This is in the form of a booklet and forms as essential part of the tender documents and ultimately of the contract documents. It is essential that every body dealing with contract should be aware of the contracts of this booklet. These general conditions are normally applicable to all contracts and can be superseded when special conditions are specially formed and stipulated in the tender documents / agreement.
Special Conditions of Contract – These are the conditions which are not covered in the general conditions of the contract.
The special conditions of contract arise due to the site conditions and the nature of work to be carried out. These conditions are framed by the Executive and the contractor is bound to fulfill the conditions during the execution of specific works and all out general application.

( d ) Abstract Estimate and Detailed Estimate.
Abstract estimate –
Abstract estimate are required to enable the competent authority to give administrative approval to the expenditure. These estimates give reasonably accurate data of the probable expenditure. These should contain a brief report and justification for the work, specification and funds required. It is prepared on form No E 702.
Detailed estimate –
Detailed estimates are required for works, in which each sub-work is shown separately. Cost of material, labour, stores and transport etc. are taken into account along with allocation of expenditure. Credits for released materials are also taken into account 5% of the total cost is added to the estimate as contingencies. A report on justification of work also accompanies the detailed estimate. It is prepared on form No E 704, E 705 & E706.

( e ) Part I & Part II Audit Reports –
The DAuO conduct inspection of the executive and subordinate offices of the entire division once in 3 years. Programme is made in advance and the concerned officers are advised in advance so as to enable them to keep their records ready.
The reports, as a result of such inspections consist of two parts –
Part I – Contains more important irregularities.
Part II – Contains minor irregularties.
The final disposal of Part II audit notes rests with the Accounts Officer and no reply to the divisional audit Officer is necessary. However, when required these should be made available to the DAuO.
Replied to Part I are to be submitted by the Divisional Officers to the DAuO through the Divisional Accounts Officer, as early as possible ( within 2 months ) indicating there in the action taken. The closure of the objections rests with the ADuO.

( f ) Special limited tender and Open tender.-
Special Limited Tender -  
It has now been decided that CAO ( C ) with the concurrence of FA&CAO ( C ) may be invite Special Limited Tenders not only for specialized nature of work but all types of works depending upon the merit of these case.    
Special Limited Tender in following cases in consultation with FA&CAO -      
  1. Consultancy Work (Personal Approval of GM)
  2. To be invited from specialised and reputed contractors / organizations / agencies.
  3. Proposal to detail circumstances and necessity.  To be concurred by FA&CAO / FA&CAO (C) and approved by PHOD personally.
  4. Preferably more than six but not less than four.
  5. Tenderers need not be borne on approved list.
Open tender -
The system of invitation of Tender by public advertisements in the most open public manner possible should be used as a general rule and must be adopted subject to certain exceptions
Wide publicity may be given to the call of tenders by -
    i.    Notices in Railway Offices,
   ii.    Notices in other government offices,
  iii.    Advertisement in vernacular/local news papers,
  iv.    Advertisement in National/international news papers, if work is very important.

( g ) Preliminary Works Programme and Pink Book -
Preliminary Works programme –
Railway are a growing, dynamic organization. The development of facilities amenities etc have to keep pace with the growth of goods and passenger traffic. To plan in advance and execute such development investment decisions relating to certain acquisition and replacement of assets are processed through Works programme.
The railway board lay down the financial limits under  various plan heads which the railway administration are required to make out their programme for the year. These proposals initiated by the concerned departs either individually or severally are vests by the FA & CAO and approved by the GM for submission to railway board as the Preliminary works programme. The board discusses the proposals with the GM and the works and outlays during the ensuring budget year are decided upon.
The states of investment planning and preparation of the final works programme are-
              i.     Formulation of schemes as advance planning.
             ii.     Submission of major schemes for advance secreting and clearance by the Railway Board.
            iii.     Preparation of Preliminary works programme within programme within the financial ceiling.
           iv.     Discussion with the Railway Board and there after submission of final works programme.
Pink Book  :-              
This shows the various sub heads under which the lum sum amount sanctioned by allotment is to be spent and this indicates the works for which the allotment of money is intended. These books are furnished to the Railways along with budget orders.
The Pink Books also show in the case of work costing over one lack each , total estimated cost of each work and railway administration are required to exercise control over expenditure not only against the allotment sanctioned for the year for each work but also against its total estimated cost as shown in Pink Book  for works costing less than one lack rupees each a lum sum is allotted to each Railway administrations in Pink Book.  

Q.2.- Write short notes on any Five  of the following -                              
    i.  Procedure for creation of additional posts for additional assets.
   ii.  Procedure  to be adopted for change of classification of staff from one category to other under HOER Rules.     
  iii.  Distinguish between dismissal and removal from service.
  iv.  Workmen Compensation Act.
   v.  Hours of Employment Regulation.
  vi.  DCRG to a Railway Servant on superannuation.
 vii.  Major  Penalties under D & AR.    
Ans.-
( i ) Procedure for creation of additional posts for additional assets. –
Railway Board have banned creation of all posts of Gazetted and Non Gazetted staff in the open line but General Manager have full powers for the creation of non Gazetted posts for operation and maintenance of new / additional assets with matching surrender.
DRM may be allowed to create Non Gazetted Group C & D posts required for maintenance and operation of new assets on 1 : 1 basis by surrendering 1 post in a particular grade and creating fresh post in same / lower grade with GM approval.   
( ii ) Procedure  to be adopted for change of classification of staff from one category to other under HOER Rules -    
The factual job analysis is the best method to fix or change of the classification under HOER, the job analysis is conducted to review the existing classification. If it is on demand of staff side or otherwise it should be conducted for 72 consecutive hrs. & if it is done by administration as a review and the result of 1st day show no changes then need not to be proceed further and if it shows the change of classification then it should be conducted for 72 consecutive hrs.
After completion of job analysis, the date in matter, job analysis sheet should be discussed with Senior Supervisor concerned. If any comment if should be incorporated in the job analysis
The report on the basis of job analysis sheet should be prepared for recommendation of a clarification. It should be got agreed with the executive officer. If any clarification warrants change then the proposal should be sent to concerned Account department for its concurrence. After concurrence, it should be sent to DRM for his approval.
On approval of DRM, the recommendation should be sent to “P” Branch in HQ’s office, who, in turn will sent it to concerned HOD. If the HOD agree with the recommendation then it will be sent for concurrence of FA&CAO. On behalf of GM, CPO can accept the recommendation, if it is down graded the classification i.e. “I” to “C” or “C” to “EI”. If it is up gradation then the GM’s approval required.
( iii ) Dismissal and Removal from service –
Removal from service which shall not be a disqualification for future employment under the Government or Railway Administration.
Dismissal from service which shall ordinarily be a disqualification for future employment under the Government or Railway Administration.
Provided that in cases of persons found guilty of any act or omission which resulted or would have, ordinarily, resulted in collisions of Railway trains, signals at danger, one of the penalties specified shall, ordinarily be imposed and where such penalty is not imposed, the reasons therefore shall be recorded in writing.
Provided further that in case of persons found guilty of having accepted or having obtained from any person any gratification, other than legal remuneration, as a motive or reward for doing or forbearing to do any official act, one of the penalties specified shall ordinarily be imposed and where such penalty is not imposed, the reasons therefore shall be recorded in writing.

( iv ) The workmen’s compensation Act  
This act provides for the payment by certain classes of employers to their workman of compensation, as per schedules prescribed for injury owing to accident arising out of and in the hours of employment as a result of which a workman may have died or becomes disabled for a period of more than 3 days. It also makes provision for compensation for contracting any occupational disease peculiar to the employment. The contracting where of being deemed to be an injury by accident.

( v ) Hours of Employment Regulation. -
The Rly. servant made there under and the subsidiary instruction issued by R.D. are commonly referred to as Hours of Employment Regulation. Time during which an employee is roistered for duty. It also included period if in-action but does not included interval and time taken by an employee in going to and coming from his residence or vice versa.
It is a document which above the duration of hours of employment and period of rest of the employee. The rest which is granted to Rly. servant each week periodically. It does not include permission to leave head quarter station.
Period between two or more spells of duty during which an employee is free to leave his post / place of work. Period of time during which the employee must remain present on duty at the place of work although not exercising  physical activity or sustained attention. Period of duty over 8 hrs. in the case of “Intensive” workers, over 10 hrs. in the case of continuous workers and over 12 hrs. in the case of “Essentially Intermittent” workers. Period of rest which is less than 12 hrs. in a Roster of 6 hrs. duty, less than 14 hrs. in a mixed roster of 6 hrs & 8 hrs. duty in case of  “Intensive” workers, less than 10 hrs. in case of “Continuous” worker and less than 8 hrs. in case of “E.I.” workers.
A person will be said to have had a full night in bed, if he has get a continuous rest of 8 hrs. Between 10 PM to 6 AM (22 hrs. 6 hrs.). Any part of roster hrs. of duty which falls between the hrs. of 10 pm to 6 am, shall be treated as night duty.
Preparatory and / or complementary work which include taking out & handing over charges, the work which is to be carried on out side the limit laid down for the general working of a shift. This concept may be even in case of single shift workers where there may be no handing over or taking over. If period of P&C less than 15 minutes per day may not be mentioned in the Roster of such workers, if between 45 minutes & one hour per day be considered as one hour as period of duty.

( vi ) DCRG to a Railway Servant on superannuation - 
Railway employee on their retirement or their families in the event of their death while in service get the amount of retirement gratuity or death gratuity. Maximum retirement Gratuity payable is 16½ times of the emoluments ( viz. Pay plus D.A. ) or Rs. 3.5 lacks which ever is less, where as the maximum limit of Death Gratuity is 33 times of emoluments ( viz. Pay plus D.A. ) or Rs. 3.5 lacks which ever is less.

( vii ) Major Penalties :-
5)    Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
6)    Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
7)    Compulsory retirement.
8)    Removal from service.
9)    Dismissal from service.

Q.3.- Write short notes on any Ten   of the following -                                 
                      i.  Design mode operation of Track Machines.                                         
                     ii.  Procedure of converting SWR into LWR.
                    iii.  Difference between Catch Siding and Slip Siding.
                   iv.  Difference between Temporary Speed restriction and permanent speed restriction.
                    v.  Difference between hot weather patrolling and cold weather patrolling.
                   vi.  Various types of protective works to control damage to Bridge approaches by meandering rivers during high floods.
                  vii.  Criteria for manning of Level crossing and procedure to be followed for de manning of level crossings.
                 viii.  Precautions and actions to be taken for safe running of trains in case of rail / weld fractures.
                   ix.  Precautions and actions to be taken for safe running trains before and during monsoon at vulnerable locations.
                    x.  Basic features of a CSM and Unimate machines.
                   xi.  Different methods of disinfection of water. What is meant by residual chlorine.                  
                  xii.  Difference between cant deficiency and cant excess.
                 xiii.  Specifications of machine crushed ballast and  are  precautions to be taken while measurement & passing of ballast.
                 xiv.  Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act 1963.
                  xv.  Various incentive schemes for encouraging the use of official Language in offices.    

Ans.-
( I ) Design mode operation of Track Machines
 In Design Mode precise track geometry data must be known before work commences. Correct track geometry data should be input at the front tower as even small error will have a cumulative effects on the slews produced by the machine.
a) Curved Track
Versine survey of the curve is to be carried out, then slews are worked out and made available to the operator for feeding to the front tower.
b) Transition position
The correct location of transition and its location in relation to run up or down is essential. The actual sleeper at the start and end of the transition should be indicated to the operator. With this information, the length of transition can be ascertained and the tabulated values applied to the control of the machine at the front tower.
c) Straight Track
There is a possibility of a long straight track being made up of a series of smaller zig-zag straight lengths. Therefore, the theodolite should be used to establish straight line along the length of track to be corrected.
Levelling in Design Mode -
Levels of a track section are recorded by using levelling instrument. Final level along with gradients and vertical curves are decided. The required lifts are finally recorded on every alternate sleeper. Levelling is carried out by entering the lift values at the front tower.
By adopting design mode of levelling and lining desired track geometry can be achieved.

( ii ) Procedure of converting SWR into LWR -
Short welded rail (SWR) is a welded rail, which contracts and expands throughout its length. Normally the length of SWR is 3 ´ 13 meter  For converting SWR into LWR Consolidation of track is necessary.
Consolidation of track is the process of building up ballast resistance to the tendency of movement of sleeper either initially before laying LWR or making up subsequent loss of resistance by anyone of the following
i). For track structures consisting of sleepers other than concrete sleepers -
a) Passage of at least 3,00,000 gross tonnes of traffic  when compaction of ballast is done using hand operated compactors / consolidators or rammers.
b) Passage of at least 50,000 gross tonnes of traffic on or a period of two days, whichever is later, when compaction is done by means of mechanised shoulder and crib compactor.
ii) For the track structure consisting of concrete sleepers, passage of at least 50,000 gross tonnes of traffic or a period of two days whichever is later.
iii) At least one round of stabilisation by Dynamic Track Stabiliser (DTS).
iv) For newly laid LWR / CWR. at least three rounds of packing, last two of which should be with on-track tamping machines
The following additional precautions should be observed when converting SWR into LWR :-
(1) The anticipated residual life shall be at least 10 years.
(2) The rails shall be tested ultrasonically and all defective rails replaced before conversion into LWR.
(3) Rail ends which are hogged or battered or have a history of cracks in bolt hole region, shall be cropped before conversion into LWR.

( iii ) Difference between Catch Siding and Slip Siding -
Catch Sidings
Normally all catch sidings except those which are sanded shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 metres, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded length of a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings if connected to other vehicles, therefore these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicles coupled thereto while the overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.
Slip Siding –
If the Station yard is in a gradient steeper than 1 in 260 or there is a continuous falling gradient away from the station there is a possibility of vehicles standing in the yard entering or escaping into the block section and cause accidents to prevent such escaping of vehicles into the block section slip siding are provided.
At a station where there is a gradient 1 in 100 falling away from the station within 45 meters beyond the outer most points at either end a slip siding should be provided.
As per the schedule of dimensions no station yard should be constructed nor should any siding join a passenger line on a steeper grade than 1 in 260 except where it is unavoidable and then only with the previous sanction of the railway board obtained through the commissioner of Railway safety when a slip siding is made sufficient prevent accident.

( iv ) Difference between Temporary Speed restriction and permanent speed restriction -
Temporary Speed restriction –
The Temporary  speed restrictions to be imposed during various sequences of work such as Opening, relaying and initial packing, through packing, Picking up of slacks as required, tamping, Attention to track as required, These consists of :
(a) Caution indicator.
(b) Speed indicator.
(c ) Stop indicator.
(d) Termination indicators ( T/P & T/G).
Permanent speed restriction -
Permanent speed restrictions in force are notified in working time-tables. The speed indicators are erected to indicate to the Drivers the speed restrictions to be observed e.g., between stations, and at stations due to weaker/non standard track/ bridges, restrictions on curves, grades and points and crossings etc.
The indicators to be used are similar to those used for temporary restrictions, namely, caution indicator, speed/stop indicators and termination indicators (T/P&T/G). The details of the indicators and the distance at which they are to be fixed are the same in both the cases
The permanent indicators need not be flood lit at night as in the case of temporary indicators/ signals.

( v ) Difference between hot weather patrolling and cold weather patrolling -
Hot weather patrolling  -
Hot Weather Patrol is the patrol carried out when the rail temperature exceeds td + 20OC.
Cold weather patrolling  -
Cold Weather Patrol is the patrol carried out during cold months of the year in specified sections as per .instructions of Chief Engineer.

( vi ) Various types of protective works to control damage to Bridge approaches by meandering rivers during high floods.
Various types of protective works –
Curtain walls – This wall is constructed on the up stream side of the pier and at the end of apron between tow piers.
Drop wall -  It is the wall constructed at the end of apron on down stream side.
Toe wall – It is the wall constructed at the end of slope of bank.
Pitching – This is provided from toe wall to formation level on the bridge banks slope near abutment and wing wall.
Apron / Flooring – It is the flooring between piers from curtain wall to drop wall.
Grindle wall – Rails are provided around the piers and between rails and walls wooden sleepers are provided.
Needles – These are vertical rails provided across the flow of the river to reduce the velocity of the flow.
Water cushions – These are the trenches provided near the fall in the river in hilly area. It collects the floating matters in the river flow during the floods.
And other protective works such as guide bunds, launching aprons, spurs / groynes, approach banks, marginal bunds etc. and also inspected following points -
    i.     The waterway is adequate and clear of obstruction.
   ii.     The marginal embankments maintained by the State Governments should be inspected. 
  iii.     It should be examined whether there has been any disturbing influence noticed like excessive velocity, parallel flow, heavy afflux, tank bursts in catchments and increase in spill from adjacent catchment.
Protection of Approach Banks -
1. Approach banks of bridges may be subjected to severe attack under the following conditions :-
    i.     When the HFL at the bridge is very high and there is spill beyond the normal flow channel.
   ii.     When the stream  meets a main  river just downstream of the bridge.
  iii.     In the case of bridges with insufficient water way.
  iv.     The  wave action on the approach bank of bridges situated in a lake / large tank bed may have a detrimental effect.
In all the above cases the pitching of the approach bank up to HFL with sufficient free board is an effective solution. Provision of toe wall and narrow apron in some cases will also be useful.
2. If deep borrow pits are dug near the toe of approach banks, the water flows through these pits and forms a gradually deepening water course which may  eventually threaten the safety of the  approach bank. In this case it will be useful to  put rubble “T”  spurs  across the flow to reduce the velocity and expedite silting of the course.
3. Whenever  the water level on either side of an approach bank is different, there may be seepage  of water and to ease the hydraulic gradient , widening of banks, provision of sub banks and toe filters etc may be resorted to.
4. At locations with standing water against the embankment, special watch should be kept when the water level recedes  rapidly and  when  slips are likely to occur.

( vii ) Criteria for manning of Level crossing  and procedure to be followed for de manning of level crossings.-
 (1) Minimum Train Vehicle Units on a Level Crossing should be 1 lakh per day. However, this could be relaxed in the following cases.
(a) Suburban sections having high frequency of train services.
(b) Near stations where detentions to road traffic are very high on account of either shunting operations or multi-directional receipt/despatch of trains or stabing of trains etc.
(2) Preference should be given to the Level Crossings located on trunk routes. vis-a-vis those located on branch lines, in any case, minimum number of times the Level Crossing is required to be closed against the road traffic should at least be 12 times per day.
(3) Subject to  priority should generally be accorded by the concerned State Government giving preference to Level Crossings on National Highways.
(4) In case of Road Over/Under Bridges constructed in replacement of busy Level Crossings situated in Municipal/Corporations/Metropolitan areas where Light Vehicular traffic is considerable and where the Railways are satisfied that closure of the Level Crossings would cause hardship, additional provision may be made for construction of the sub-way or a light Over Bridge with ramps for the use of light vehicular traffic at the time of framing the proposal for the construction of Road Over/Under Bridges. The proposals for providing the ramps/sub-way should be examined critically and should be provided for only in the case of genuine hardships and not as a matter of course. The cost of these ramps/sub-way will be shared equally with the Sponsoring Authority on 50 : 50 basis.
(5) Closure of the Level Crossings should be ensured before commissioning of the Road Over/Under Bridges. All such cases where State / Local Authorities do not agree.
The existing manned Level Crossings should not be demanned. However, the detailed review / survey of the existing Level Crossings both manned and unmanned to be carried out with a view to eliminate them by either passing the road through an existing bridge or by construction link roads to combine two or more Level Crossings etc.

( viii ) Precautions and actions to be taken for safe running of trains in case of rail / weld fractures  -
( 1 ) It is of paramount importance that whenever a fracture of a rail/welded joint is noticed, immediate action is taken to restore the track, if necessary with restricted speed, with the least possible delay.
( 2 ) The Mate / Keyman / Gangman, as soon as he notices the rail fracture/weld failure should first protect the track, while the repairs are being carried out. He should also send information to the P.W.I. and the Station Master of the nearest station.
( 3 ) If the fracture is with a gap of less than 30 mm. in the case of fish-plated/SWR track, the fractured portion should be supported on wooden block or by shifting the nearest sleepers on both sides. In the case of LWR the fractured rail should also be clamped.
( 4 ) When the fracture gap is more than 30 mm., a closure of appropriate length should be used with a clamp and further action taken as in sub-para (3) above.
( 5 ) In cases where a small portion or piece of rail has come off or in the case of multiple fracture, the rail has to be changed.
( 6 ) In the case of weld failure, joggled fish-plates and clamps should be used.
( 7 )After doing the emergency repairs the trains may be passed at 20 km.p.h by a Mate / Keyman, until the Permanent Way Official replaces the rail and restores full speed.
( 8 ) If there is a spate of rail fractures, additional Keyman’s patrol should be introduced in the early hours of morning.

( ix ) Precautions and actions to be taken for safe running trains before and during monsoon at vulnerable locations -
General precautions to be taken before monsoon. –
It is necessary to take certain precautions, and carry out certain essential works before the commencement of monsoon, such as-
( 1 ) All catch water drains and side drains must be cleared.
( 2 ) The waterways of bridges must be cleared of vegetation and other obstructions.
( 3 ) Protective and river training works must be maintained in good condition and repairs carried out wherever necessary. Scour holes should be filled with boulders.
( 4 ) The High Flood Level (H.F.L.), Full Supply Level (F.S.L.) , and Danger Level (D.L.) must be painted.
( 5 ) Water shall not be allowed to stagnate on the track.
( 6 ) In hilly areas, where there is incidence of falling boulders, a survey should be carried out to locate loose boulders.  
( 7 ) Selection of Patrolman Intelligent, experienced and trustworthy men should be selected to work as Patrolmen and Watchmen.
( 8 ) The equipment of Patrolmen and other watchman shall be complete in all respects.
( 9 ) Spare trolleys should be kept in readiness at the headquarters and at other stations in the proximity of vulnerable locations. Motor Trolleys must be overhauled and kept in fit condition.
( 10 ) Rivers in the upstream reaches should be inspected for guarding against possible change in water course.
( 11 ) The prescribed reserve stock of boulders, empty cement bags, wire netting and sand / quarry dust should be kept at specified locations for rushing to site.
( 12 ) The temporary Engineering indicators must be painted and kept ready for use.
( 13 ) The rain gauges should be inspected before the monsoon and it should be ensured that they are in perfect working condition.
( 14 ) Vulnerable locations / kilometrages should be reviewed jointly by the Assistant Engineers and Divisional Engineers and on the basis of past history and pre monsoon inspections and the register of vulnerable locations should be brought up-to-date.
Vigilance over Railway Affecting tanks during heavy rains—
( 1 ) the Divisional Engineer and the Assistant Engineer should arrange with the local authorities / village headman in whose jurisdiction 'Railway Affecting' tanks are situated to watch them during periods of heavy rain and give timely intimation to the nearest Station Master.
 ( 2 ) When the railway line is threatened, the Assistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspector shall take adequate steps to ensure the safety of Railway property and staff and arrange patrolling of the line and / or post watchmen with necessary equipment at the place or places threatened and advise the Divisional Engineer accordingly.
( 3 ) All the Bridges which are likely to be affected be Railway affecting tanks or other storage works should be provided with a tablet on top of one of the parapets.
( 4 ) If the bridge in whose catchment a Railway affecting tank is located is classified as a vulnerable location, stationary watchmen should be posted during monsoon.

( x ) Basic features of a CSM and Unimate machines -
CSM –
A new type continuous action 09-CSM tamping machine has been introduced by M / S Plasser & Theurer. The actual work units however which consist of tamping lifting and lining units are positioned in a separate under frame and are moved in a work cycle from sleeper to sleeper.
Two independent tamping units are provided, one for each rail. These are attached to the machine frame by means of vertical guiding columns.  The tamping units are fitted to the satellite Frame.
The tamping units may be for tamping one sleeper or two sleepers or three sleepers at a time depending upon type/model of tamping machine. 16 tamping tools are provided for tamping each sleeper. The tools are arranged in pairs and each sleeper is tamped by 8 such pairs, on both side of each rail. The units are held by horizontal guiding column in order to slide sideways, which allows their automatic centering over the rails in curves.
The tools are vibrated by piston rods pivoted on eccentric shaft driven by hydraulic motors.
Unimat Machine –
The machine has got 16 independently tiltable tamping tools which enable the machine to work on points and crossing as well as on plain track. The machine has a weight of about 40 tones and can give an average out put of one set of points & crossing per hour.
Out of 16 tools 4 tamping tools are normally used at a time for maintenance of point and crossings. These tools can be tilted independently of each other so that even critical areas can be tamped.
While tamping plain track all the 16 tools are in action and in that situation the machine corresponds to a normal plain line tamping unit.

( xi ) Different methods of disinfection of water-
Disinfection of Water - 
The process of killing bacteria’s from water is called disinfect ion. For utmost safety of water for drinking purposes, disinfection of water has to be done to remove disease producing organisms before it enters distribution system.            Disinfection is also required to prevent contamination of water during its transit from the treatment plant to the place of its consumption.  The efficiency of disinfection depends on the nature of disinfectants.
Other minor methods on small scale are as under –
  1. Boiling method – 10 to 15 minutes to be boiled.
  2. Light method - Sun light, Ultra violent rays.
  3. Chemical method – Iodine, Bromine, Potassium per magnate, Silver ions, copper ions, lime.
For treatment on larger scale, chlorination is generally used as treatment for disinfection. 
Chlorination –
The process of applying small quantities of chlorine to water is called chlorination.
Chlorine can be applied may be any one of the following –
1. Bleaching powder 2. Hypochlorities   3. Chloramines            4. Chlorine dioxide    5. Liquid chlorine 6. Chlorine gas.  7. Sodium Hypochlorid.
Chlorine can be applied in water by using bleaching powder, chloramines or as free chlorine gas.  A minimum of 30 to 60 minutes contact time must be provided before delivery of water to the consumer. 
Chlorination should be done generally using chlorine gas or other similar methods by Engg. department in chlorination plants installed at the filtration plants operated & maintained by the Engg deptt. At other places, chlorination has to be done by mixing good quality bleaching powder solution at a particular rate with raw water in the pumping main at the pump house itself or at the high level storage tanks by the IOW.
Chlorocil equipment using brine solution can also be used for chlorination purposes where assured electricity is available as this equipment produces instant chlorine gas by electrolytic process.
At stations & colonies where drinking water is obtained from wells, IOW should chlorinate the well water using bleaching powder once a week.
In between stations where the wells are provided for the use of gang men, the well water should be chlorinated by using bleaching powder by the PWI once a week.
Residual chlorine –
The amount of chlorine remaining at the end in treated water after chlorine used in killing bacteria’s called as Residual chlorine. Minimum residual chlorine available at the farthest end shall be  0.2 PPM in water after a contact period of 30 to 60  minutes.  However, where distribution is long and complex it may be difficult to maintain the minimum residual value and in such cases re-chlorination may be carried out in the distribution system.  
During monsoon months or if specific complaints are there, super-chlorination more than 2 ppm of chlorine may be resorted to effectively get rid of bacteria.
The Section Engineer (Works) should frequently check the concentration of residual chlorine at the consumer point by orthotolodine test.  In this test 100 ml of chlorinated water sample is collected in the test tube.  1 ml of orthotolodine solution is added to it.  The colour formed is noted, value of the residual chlorine is directly determined by comparing the colour so obtained with the standard chart of  colours of non-chlorine residuals.  Divisional Engineer should ensure sufficient number of equipment with all the field units.
                 
( xii ) Difference between cant deficiency and cant excess -
Cant Deficency –
Cant Deficency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.
Cant excess –
Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the actual cant and the theoretical cant required for such lower speed.

( xiii ) Specification of track Ballast –
1.   Ballast should be hard durable and as far as possible angular along edges/corners, free from weathered portions of parent rock, organic impurities and inorganic residues.
2.   Ballast should be cubical in shape as far as possible. Individual pieces should not be flaky and should have generally flat faces with not more than two rounded/sub-rounded faces.
3.   Water Absorption - should not be more than 1%.
4.   Physical Properties –
    i.    Aggregate Abrasion Value    -    30% Max.                          
   ii.    Aggregate Impact Value            20% Max.         
5. Size and Gradation -    Ballast should satisfy the following size and gradation
a)    Retained on 65mm Sq. mesh sieve    5%Maximum
b)    Retained on 40mm sq.mesh sieve   - 40%-60%
      c)   Retained on 20mm sq.mesh sieve   -  Not less than 98%
6. Oversize Ballast –  Retention on 65mm square mesh sieve. - A maximum of 5% ballast retained on 65mm sieve shall be allowed without deduction in payment.
7. Under Size Ballast - The Ballast shall be treated as undersize and shall be rejected if: -
    i.    Retention on 40mm Sq.Mesh sieve is less than 40%.
   ii.    Retention on 20mm square mesh sieve is less than 98%
8. Stack measurement-
Stacking shall be done on a neat, plain and firm ground with good drainage. The height of stack shall not be less than 1m except in hilly areas where it may be 0.5m. The height shall not be more than 2.0 m.Top width of stack shall not be less than 1.0m. Top of stack shall be kept parallel to the ground plane. The side slopes of stack should not be flatter than 1.5:1 (Horizontal : Vertical) Cubical content of each stack shall normally be not less than 30 cum in plain areas and 15 cum in hilly areas.
9. Wagon measurement –
In case of ballast supply taken by direct loading into wagons, a continuous white line should be painted inside the wagon to indicate the level to which ballast should be loaded. The cubical content in cubic meter corresponding to white line should also be painted on both sides outside the wagon.
In addition to painted line short pieces of flats with cubical contents punched, shall be welded at the centre of all the four sides  as permanent refer
10. Shrinkage allowance –
Payment shall be made for the gross measurement either in stacks or in wagons without any deduction for shrinkage/voids. However, when ballast supply is made in wagons, shrinkage upto 8% shall be permitted at destination while verifying the booked quantities by the consignee.

( xiv )Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act 1963 -
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( xv ) Various incentive schemes for encouraging the use of official Language in offices.-
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*************************************
West Central Railway LGS Examination – Civil Engineering 2008
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Estimate.
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Supplementary.
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Affidavit.
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Explanation.
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Privilege.
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Noting.
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Casual.
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Compassionate grounds.
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Un fit.
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Part – II ( Technical Part )
Maximum Marks – 90
Attempt any 6 questions out of the given 9. All questions carry equal marks.
Question 1 and 2 are multiple choice questions. Write down the question number and the correct alternative i.e. a,b,c,d in front of the question number. For instance if the correct alternative of question no 1.2 is be then write down the answer as – 1.2 ( b )
Question No. 1 –
1.1  - Overhauling of track should normally be completed in –
( a ) Two years. ( b ) Ten years. ( c ) Six years. ( d ) Normally over a period of 3 to 5 years.
1.2. - Manual deep Screening of track on IR under a speed restriction of –
        ( a ) Stop Dead and 10 kmph.   ( b ) 15 kmph.     ( c ) 20 kmph         ( d ) 30 kmph.
1.3. –As per IRPWM the speed of a deep screening site with machine packing can be relaxed to normal in a minimum of – ( a ) 10 days.   ( b ) 21 days.   ( c ) 14 days.    ( d ) 7 days.
1.4. – A CWR is a LWR which –  ( a ) requires to be distressed in parts.  ( b ) passes through station yards including points and crossings.  ( c ) Requires special precautions for maintenance. ( d ) None of the above.
1.5. – If the maximum rail temperature at a station is 600 C and minimum temperature is – 50 C it will fall in – ( a ) Zone I  ( b ) Zone II  ( c ) Zone III ( d ) Zone IV
1.6. – If an LWR is to be laid over a girder bridge the type of rail sleeper fastenings to be used are –  ( a ) creep resistant fastenings.   ( b ) rail free fastenings.     ( c ) elastic fastenings.  ( d ) Rigid fastenings.
1.7.- If a turn out takes off from the inside of a mainline curve, the cant which can be provided on the mainline will be governed by considerations of –  ( a ) cant excess.  ( b ) cant deficiency. ( c ) equilibrium cant. ( d ) None of the above.
1.8. – The Assistant Engineer’s inspection of points and crossings in a year is – ( a ) 50% of all points and crossings in his jurisdiction.   ( b ) 100% of all points and crossings in his jurisdiction. ( c ) 100% of all points and crossings on running lines and 25% of all points on other lines. ( d ) 100% of all points and crossings on running lines and 10% of all points on other lines.
1.9. The service life in items of total GMT of traffic carried for considering through rail renewal on the bridge proper and in the bridge approaches for 60 kg 90 UTS rails is –
        ( a ) 800 GMT  ( b ) 550 GMT   ( c ) 350 GMT   ( d ) 400 GMT.
1.10. – Maximum value of cant deficiency permitted on A & B routes is –
            ( a ) 100 mm   ( b ) 75 mm.  ( c ) 50 mm.    ( d ) 125 mm.
Question No. 2. –
2.1. – As per bridge manual the maintenance of a 24.4 m. span steel girder will be done by –
         ( a ) Assistant Engineer of the section.  ( b ) IOW of the section.  ( c ) PWI of the section.   ( d ) AEN / XEN Bridge of the section.
2.2. – Hollows in masonry piers and abutments should be filled up by –  ( a ) Epoxy grouting.     ( b ) Gunniting.    ( c ) Shotcreting.     ( d ) Cement pressure grouting.
2.3. – The elcometer is a device used to measure –         ( a ) Dry film thickness of paint.        
          ( b ) Cover below reinforcement.  ( c ) Moisture content in sand.
          ( d ) Setting time of concrete.
2.4. – While constructing approaches for ROBs in built up area land acquisition can be reduced by using – ( a ) Geotextiles.   ( b ) Soil anchoring.   ( c ) Reinforced earth.  ( d ) Soil stabilization.
2.5. – Normal reinforcement can not be used in Prestressed concrete structures because –           ( a ) It is highly corrosion prone.  ( b ) The losses will neutralize the stress induced in it.      ( c ) It dose not have adequate ductility.    ( d ) It dose not have adequate fatigue strength.
2.6. – Piles generally used for bridge construction on IR are –      ( a ) Pre cast concrete piles.     ( b ) Timber piles.     ( c ) Cast in situ bored concrete piles.       ( d ) steel pile.
2.7.- Bentonite is a material used –             ( a ) To improve the slump of concrete.               
        ( b ) To prevent caving in of the bore hole walls.
        ( c ) To increase the strength of concrete.   ( d ) None of these.
2.8. – Which is no a component of an arch bridge -  ( a ) Spandrel.    ( b ) Crown.   ( c ) Parapet.  ( d ) Stringer.
2.9.- The most reliable method for assessing the load carrying of a pile in a given strata is –
         ( a ) Static formula.   ( b ) Dynamic formula.   ( c ) Pile load test.  ( d ) None of the above.
2.10. – For checking the versines of turn in and turn out curves of a turn out the length of chord used as per IRPWM is – ( a ) 3 m.  ( b ) 6 m. ( c ) 11.8 m.  ( d ) 20 m.
Question No. 3 – Write down the steps involved in complete realignment of a curve.
Question No. 4 – Write salient features of MEXE and RING 1.5 programme to check the strength of arch bridge.
Question No. 5 – Write short notes on following –
            i.       Action to be taken on detection of faulty welds or rails during USFD testing.
           ii.       Hot weather patrolling.
Question No. 6 – Write short notes on any two of the following –
            i.       Water proofing treatment on roofs.
           ii.       Quality checks for ensuring quality of ballast.
          iii.       Compaction testing of soils.
Question No. 7 – What are the precautions to be observed when working with tie tamping machines before tamping, during tamping and after tamping operations.
Question No. 8 – Write down the steps involved in distressing of LWRs using tensor.
Question No. 9 – What are the tests to be conducted to ensure good quality concrete while concreting a Prestressed concrete girder.
Part – III ( Finance and Establishment )
Maximum marks – 45
Answer any 3 questions out of 5. All question carry equal marks.
Question 1 is a multiple choice questions. Write down the question number and the correct alternative i.e. a,b,c or d in front of the question number. For instance if the correct alternative of question no 1.2 is be then write down the answer as – 1.2 ( b )
Question No. 1 –
1.1  Demand No. 4 of the railway budget pertains to –
      ( a ) Repairs and maintenance of motive power. 
      ( b ) Operating expenses rolling stock and equipment.
      ( c ) Assets – Acquisition, Construction and Replacement. 
      ( d ) Repairs and maintenance of permanent way.
1.2. Use of railway land for keeping cattle, throwing refuse etc unauthorized way leave facilities constitutes –      ( a ) Hard encroachments.                                   ( b ) Soft encroachment. 
                                 ( c ) Do not form an encroachment at all.             ( d ) None of these.
1.3. RTI act was promulgated in – ( a ) 1996     ( b ) 2000    ( c ) 2005     ( d ) 1990
1.4. Recruitment of group D staff will hence forth be done by –           ( a ) Railway Board.            ( b ) Railway Recruitment Board.                   ( c ) PWI in case of engineering department.  ( d ) Recruitment cell under DyCPO ( recruitment )
1.5. Class I officers joining the Indian railway Service of Electrical Engineers under go Centralized training at -   ( a ) Nasik.   ( b ) Jamalpur.   ( c ) Vadodara. ( d ) Pune.
1.6. Direct Recruitment to Group C for Kota division is done by railway recruitment board located at -  ( a ) Kota    ( b ) Ajmer   ( c ) Bhopal     ( d ) Jabalpur.
1.7. The earnest money for a tender costing 50 lacks will be –    ( a ) 2 Lacks.         ( b ) 1 Lack.   ( c ) 3 Lacks.   ( d ) 1.5 Lacks.
1.8. Group A and B officers of IR are entitled to –
       ( a ) 6 sets of privilege passes and 4 sets of PTOs.
       ( b ) 6 sets of privilege passes and 3 sets of PTOs.
       ( c ) 6 sets of privilege passes and 6 sets of PTOs.
       ( d ) 3 sets of privilege passes and 3 sets of PTOs.
1.9. An employee can avail of leave encashment to the extent of amount of LAP to his credit subject to a maximum of -  ( a ) 210 days.   ( b ) 300 days.   ( c ) 240 days.  ( d ) none of the these.
1.10. SRSF has been set up to –               ( a ) Improve passenger amenities at stations.             ( b ) Improve staff amenities in colonies.    ( c ) Improvement of railway running rooms.       ( d ) To wipe out arrears of replacement of safety related assets on IR.

Question No. 2 –  Write short notes on any two of the following –
 i.       Digitisation of land plans.                                      
ii.       Jatropha plantation.                                                       
iii.       Earnings from land resources.   
Ans.-
( ii ) Jatropha Plantation –
As part of National Mission on Jatropha curcas ( for producing bio diesel ) Indian Railway has taken up plantation of Jatropha curcas on a large scale.  A memorandum of understanding ( MOU ) has been signed by the Railways with M/S. Indian oil corporation ( IOC ) for producing bio diesel which would be used by Indian Railway. For this purpose about 80 hectares of railway land has been identified  for leasing to IOC on a nominal charges for plantation of Jatropha curcas. And Jatropha saplings have been planted & planned on other balance railway land in every year from 2004 - 05.

Q. No. 3 –  Write short notes on any two of the following –
 i.     Touch and feel works.                                            
ii.     Provision for extension of completion period of a contract under GCC.
iii.     Open, limited and single tender.
Ans.-
( ii ) Provision for extension of completion period of a contract under GCC -
The contractor should not be granted any extension unilaterally. He has to apply for an extension quoting the clause under which extension is sought specifically and giving reasons in support of the clause chosen and the request thereof.
Extension however can be granted under following Clause of GCC :-
Clause 17A(i) if modifications ordered have materially increased the magnitude of the work.
Clause 17A(ii) if the progress has got affected due to an act or neglect of Railway’s employees, for want of instructions
Clause 17A(iii)           railway’s failure to hand over the lands necessary for execution of the work, provide drawings, instructions etc.
However extensions can be given with LD under Clause 17B.
Clause 17B    due to contractor’s default wherein Railways are entitled without prejudice to any other right or remedy available to recur a sum equivalent to one4 half percent of the contract value of the work for each week or part of the week.

( iii ) Open, limited and single tender -
Open Tender – See on Page 15
Limited Tender –
It is considered not possible to call for open tenders. Limited tender has now been approved by the Board as a regular measure and works up to a limit of Rs. 5 crore can be awarded on limited tender basis. Finance concurrence is not necessary in case contractors are borne on the approved list. However, if the limited tenders are proposed to be invited from contractors not borne on approved list, prior finance concurrence will be necessary.
Limited tenders are to be invited only when it is advantageous to the Railway. Further there is no restrictions on calling open tenders even if the cost of works is less than Rs. 5 crore.
However, if the limited tenders are proposed to be invited from contractors not borne on approved list, prior finance concurrence will be necessary. Such concurrence shall be taken at FA & CAO's level irrespective of the value of work and the proposal shall be approved by A.G.M. same procedure shall apply even if one of the contractors is outside the approved list. such cases minimum number of contractors are not specified but it should be ensured that opportunity is given to all the persons who are capable of doing such work and available in that area.
The revised schedule of powers will be as follows, when limited tenders are called for from the approved list of contractors :-
S.No.
Monetary slab for Limited Tender
Lowest Authority competent to approve calling of Limited Tender
1.
Up to Rs. 25 Lakhs.
JAG and SG
2.
More than Rs 25 lacks and up to Rs. 1 crore.
SAG / DRM
3.
More than Rs 1 crore  and up to Rs. 5 crore.
PHOD / CHOD
While exercising powers mentioned above, the following conditions should be fulfilled :-
    i.       The minimum numbers of contractors to be borne on the approved list should not be less than 10,
   ii.       The approved list of contractors should be a dynamic list and should be reviewed / updated annually on the basis of confidential reports. This may be updated during the year also by adding new contractors or upgrading / downgrading existing contractors on the basis of their performance and in consultation with associate finance.
Single Tender –
In case of emergency, the tender can be invited from a single contract provided that he should be from approved list of contractor.

Q. No. 4 – What are the different plan heads under demand No. 16 of the budget relevant to the engineering department.
Ans. - The Revised Classification of expenditure on works irrespective of whether they are charged to Capital DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR) or ACF will come under a single Demand-16 namely Assets-Acquisition , 'Construction and Replacement.
Plant heads will form the Minor Heads of Railway Capital under the Major Heads "546-Capital Outlay on Indian Railways-Commercial lines" and "546-Capital Outlay on Indian Railways-Strategic lines." The minor Heads classification are as follows :-
11. New Lines (Construction).    12. Purchase of new lines.   13. Restoration of dismantled lines.
14. Gauge conversion.               15. Doubling.   16. Traffic facilities-Yard remodelling and others.
21. Rolling Stock.                        29 & 30. Road Safety work. 31. Track renewals.  
32. Bridge work.                          51. Staff Quarters.                52. Amenities for staff.   
53. (i) Passenger Amenities. (ii) Other Railway User Amenities.
The sub and detailed heads give the break up of the expenditure on assets in its details such as Preliminary Expenses, Land, Formation, Permanent Way, Bridges, Stations and Buildings etc. The details of sub-heads and detailed heads which have been given for the minor heads 1100-new lines will be adopted for the other minor heads Depending upon the nature of the asset being created or replaced to the extent indicated against the respective head.
The clasitication of the assets will be indicated by these 6 digits in all the cases irrepective of whether the expenditure on the asset is chargeable to Capital, DRF, DF, Revenue (OLWR), or ACF, The source of financing will be indicated in the begining in the following alphabets: - 
P-Capital.   R-Revenue (OLWR)        T-ACF   Q-DRF    S—DF
As the plan heads of classification coincide with the sub-heads of demands for Grants the compilation of budget is also rendered easy and direct.

Q. No. 5 – List the various types of major penalties and write down the steps to be followed for imposing a major penalty.
Ans.- Major Penalties :-
1)    Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
2)    Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
3)    Compulsory retirement.
4)    Removal from service.
5)    Dismissal from service.
Procedure to impose Major penalty –
    i.    The delinquent may be allowed such further time instead of 10 days as originally prescribed as the disciplinary authority may deem fit.
   ii.    On request from the delinquent copies of documents referred to in Annexure III to SF 5 are to be supplied to him if not supplied along with SF 5.
  iii.    In an consideration of reply to the charge sheet the disciplinary authority considers it appropriate to impose a minor penalty it will pass orders representation before imposition of a minor penalty.
  iv.    The enquiry officer will conduct enquiry within the maximum limit of 20 days of his appointment.
   v.    In case the delinquent fails to appear refuses or omits to plead on the specified date enquiry will be adjourned but not beyond 30 days recording on order to that effect this is to be done by Enquiry officer.
  vi.    The delinquent within the maximum limit of 20 days from the date of order vide item 5 above give a notice to the enquiry officer for production of additional documents which are in possession of the railway Administration. Indicating its relevance to the case he will not request disciplinary authority in the he self.
 vii.    On receipt of the notice vide item 6 above the enquiry officer will forward copies of the notice to all the authorities concerned is whose possession or custody the respective documents may be specifying time limit provided in the opinion of enquiry officer such documents are considered relevant.
viii.    On receipt of requisition vide item 7 above the authorities concerned may –
a)  Produce the documents before the enquiry officer within the time specified by enquiry officer.
b)  In from the enquiry officer that production of any of the documents or all the documents where it is considered by then as against the public interest or security of the state.
  ix.    The enquiry officer on receipt of communication from the authorities concerned will take suitable action.
   x.    The condition of not having more than two cases pending at the time of nomination as a defense counsel by the delinquent has been made applicable uniformly to a serving railway employee of the same Railway a retired employee from the same railway or and official of a recognized trade union.
  xi.    The nomination of one or more defense counsel is to be made by the delinquent within 20 days of the appointment of enquiry officer.
 xii.    The EO is not required to submitted to the disciplinary authority a copy of orders passed by the former in the regard to enquiry as provided for originally.


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