QUESTION WITH ANSWER - AEN GROUP ‘B’ EXAM 2006


L.G.S. EXAMINATION – 

CIVIL ENGINEERING 2006

PART ‘A’

Q.1.- Distinguish between any three of the following :           
                              i.        Earnest money and Security Deposit.
                             ii.        General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract.
                            iii.        Revised Estimate and Supplementary Estimate.
                           iv.        Final Modification and Material Modification.
                            v.        Final bill and completion Report.                                                   
Ans.-
( i ) Earnest money and Security Deposit –
Earnest money –
The Tenderer shall be required to deposit Earnest money with the tender for the due performance with the stipulation to keep the offer open till such date as specified in the tender. Earnest money should be either in cash, deposit receipts, pay orders, demond draft.
The earnest money shall be 2% of estimated tender value. The earnest money shall be rounded to the nearest Rs. 10/- . Earnest money shall be applicable for all modes of tendering

Security Deposit –
A Security deposit is taken for the satisfaction of and efficient execution of the work within the agreed time from contractors. Such Security deposit may also be percentage deduction from on accounts bills of contractors called as retention Money usually 10% of the gross amount of bill. The scale of Security Deposit is as under –
  1. Contracts up to one lack in value 10% of the value of contract.
  2. Next one lack in value 7½% of the value of contract.
  3. For 3rd one lack and above in value 5% of the value of contract. Subject to maximum of 10 lacks.
The amount over and above 3 lacks to be recovered from the progressive bills of the contractor at the rate of 10% till it reaches the required value.

( ii ) General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract -

General Conditions of Contract – Operation of a contract is based upon the various stipulation contained in the General condition of contract. This is in the form of a booklet and forms as essential part of the tender documents and ultimately of the contract documents. It is essential that every body dealing with contract should be aware of the contracts of this booklet. These general conditions are normally applicable to all contracts and can be superseded when special conditions are specially formed and stipulated in the tender documents / agreement.

Special Conditions of Contract – These are the conditions which are not covered in the general conditions of the contract.
The special conditions of contract arise due to the site conditions and the nature of work to be carried out. These conditions are framed by the Executive and the contractor is bound to fulfill the conditions during the execution of specific works and all out general application.

( iii ) Revised Estimate and Supplementary Estimate -

Revised estimates –
Revision of estimates is some times necessary if there is rise in rates of materials, cost of labour, alteration in design etc. If the rise in the cost of work is likely to be more than 10% or Rs. 10,000/- a revised estimates is required to be made. Revised estimates should be prepared in the same degree of detail as the original estimates. The reasons for exceed should clearly explained.

Supplementary estimates –
If it is necessary to do any additional work, after an estimate is sanctioned or if any substantial changes are required to be made Supplementary estimates are made in a similar manner as the detailed estimate. The details of items should include only the extra amount of work needed to be executed.
( iv ) Final Modification and Material Modification.
Final Modification :- 
Railway administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant of appropriation . This is done through the submission of modification statements.
The third review is conducted in the month of February every year and is known as final modification. Actual expenditure during first Nine months and approximate expenditure for the Tenth month is reviewed and compared with: -
Budget grant/ revised grant (if received)
Budget proportion.
Actual expenditure during the last financial year.
Actual expenditure during corresponding period of the last financial year.
Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.
( v ) Final bill and completion Report -
Final Bill :- The final bill prepared on form No. E 1338 should be  used for making final payments . i.e. On closing running accounts for works . Normally only one final bill should be prepared against an agreement or work order . But in cases where groups of annual repair works are included in one agreement or work order there is no objection to more than one final bill being prepared on the completion of each group or certain groups.
Completion  Report :-
The object of a completion report is to compare the cost of work actually constructed with those provided for in the last sanctioned estimate. A completion report of a project duly verified by the accounts officer should be submitted to the Railway board within eighteen months after the end of the financial half-year in which the completion estimate is submitted. It should state the expenditure in the same details as abstract estimate sanctioned by the Railway board and should indicate material modification if any.
The completion report should be prepared in prescribed form and brief explanation should be furnished for: -
            i.       Excess of not less than 10% or Rs25000/- which ever is less over the estimated provision under each work.
           ii.       Saving of not less than20% or Rs1,00,000/- which ever is less occurring under each sub-work.
A completion report for work costing Rs one crore and less should be subjected to the detailed instructions issued by the Railway administration and should be prepared in the same form for works costing above Rs one crore. It should compare the actual expenditure incurred with the sanctioned amount and should give details under each sub-work. Brief explanation should be furnished for all excess and savings of over 5% or Rs10,000/- which ever is less. A completion report duly verified by the accounts officer should ordinarily be submitted to the authority that accorded the administrative approval to the work for information or regularization.

Q.2.- Write short notes on any Three of the following -                            
a.   Capital Fund.       
b.   Fixing of license fee for railway land.
c.   P.P.E. act.                                                            
d.   Variation statement in contracts.
e.   Non Schedule items.   
f.    Briefing Note.
Ans.-
( a ) Capital Fund  -  
Since Government of India has reduced the Percentage of allotting funds for Railways, the railway administration has decided to create his own capital from railway earning. This is made effective from 1- 4 – 94.
From this fund capital nature of expenditure will be met for example construction of a new line, Conversion of gauge, electrification etc. This is internally generated fund and required no payment of dividend to general revenue.
( b ) Fixing of license fee for railway land -
For fixation of license fee for Railway land licensed to private parties, a return of six per cent on the market value of the land as assessed by the local revenue. authorities should be treated as "standard rent". But in actual licensing out, Railway Administration should aim at obtaining the best possible rent. They may accept in individual cases, variation from "standard rent" on merits and for good and sufficient reasons. The minimum rent in such cases should be Rs. 100/- per annum.
The assessment of market value of the land as made by the revenue authorities need not always be treated as final or binding. It may require to be suitably adjusted and escalated if sufficient time has passed since the last assessment was made or if information was available with the railway of higher prices having been paid for private and other transactions of land in the vicinity.
( c )  P.P.E. Act -         
Public Premises eviction Act – It is the act passed by the Parliament for eviction of unauthorised persons from the public premises.
Under this act Railway officers are nominated as estate officer to whom judiciary powers are allotted equal to civil judges.
Any order issued by Estate officer can not be quashed over ruled by other civil court except for appellant purposes.
Under this act action is taken against persons who have un authorisely occupied Government land building or using any fittings etc.
Different Forms used under this Act are as under –
Form No.
Sections & Sub sections of eviction act.
Function
A
Sub sec 1 of sec 4
Issue of notice to show cause against order of eviction.
B
Sub sec 1 of sec 5
Order of eviction after hearing on show cause notice within specified time.
C
Sub sec 1 of sec 6
After waiting 30 days a notice to be issue of giving time limit of 14 days and circulate in one of the local news paper for recovery of the amount by auction.
D
Sub sec 3 of sec 6
Show cause notice for recovery of rent and arrears.
E
Sub sec 1 of sec 7
Order for payment of rent / license fee and arrears.
F
Sub sec 3 of sec 7
Show cause notice for recovery of damages and order for payment of damages as per schedules.
G
Sub sec 2 of sec 7
-  do  -
H
Sub sec 2 of sec 12
Order for asking information on schedule I & II as per section 12.
I
Sub sec 2 of sec 14
Certified and order letter to collector for recovery of amount due a land revenue.
J
Sub sec 2 of sec 13
Notice for recovery from their in case of deceased or defaulter.
( d ) Variation statement in contracts -
The Engineer on behalf of the Railway shall be entitled by order in writing to enlarge or extend, diminish or reduce the works or make any alterations in their design, character position, site, quantities, dimensions or in the method of their execution or in the combination and use of materials for the execution thereof or to order any additional work to be done or any works not to be done and the contractor will not be entitled to any compensation for any increase/reduction in the quantities of work but will be paid only for the actual amount of work done and for approved materials supplied against a specific order.
Unless otherwise specified in the special conditions of the contract, the accepted variation in quantity of each individual item of the contract would be up to 25% of the quantity originally contracted, except in case of foundation work. The contractor shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates and shall not be entitled to any claim or any compensation whatsoever up to the limit of 25% variation in quantity of individual item of works.
In case of earthwork, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of earth work and variation in the quantities of individual classifications of soil shall not be subject to this limit. In case of foundation work, no variation limit shall apply and the work shall be carried out by the contractor on agreed rates irrespective of any variation.
In case of Zonal work the limit of 20 % variation in quantity of individual item of works and 25% variation on work order subject to not exceed from maximum limit of work order cost 1 lack. 
Variation in Contract Quantities are as under -                              
Up to + 25% of Agr. Value: Same Rates
> + 25% and up to + 40% : 2% reduction in rates
> + 40% and up to + 50% : Additional 2% reduction
Execution of quantities beyond + 50% of overall Agreement Value to be done through fresh tender or by negotiating rates with existing contractor.
If variation is beyond –25% of C.V. negotiation is not required to be done
Include regulatory mechanism (for variations) in contract itself.
 ( e ) Non-Scheduled Items -
The practice of calling item wise rates to be quoted by the tenderer should be avoided as for as possible. It is however observed that large number of non-scheduled items is being operated for various types of works. Absence of a suitable item in the master schedule is cited as the main reason for adopting non-scheduled items.
It is further noticed that proper care and attention is not being given to the operation of NS items in respect of description, specifications, mode of measurements, rate etc. causing ambiguity and vagueness in NS items which, at times, may result in over payment to the contractors.
With a view to safeguarding against the above inadequacies, it has been decided that introduction of NS items will henceforth be subject to the following: -
    i.        NS items shall be included in the tender with the specific approval of Sr. DEN (Co) / Dy. CE (C).
   ii.        NS items shall be operated only when it is unavoidable & should satisfy the following criteria –
a)      No item with similar description is available in the master schedule, which can serve the purpose.
b)      The description of NS item is not prepared by combining more than one SSR item.
c)      The descriptions of NS items are not prepared by splitting the existing SSR item into more than one NS item.
d)      Wherever it is expedient the NS item can be formed by combining / splitting the existing SSR items with the specific approval of HQ.
  iii.        The description and the specifications of NS item should be complete & unambiguous. No component of NS item should be overlapping with the description of any of the existing SSR items included in the tender, since such overlapping may lead to double payment for that particular component of NS item.
  iv.        Special conditions specific to the NS items should be included in the tender agreement.
   v.        Mode of measurement of NS items should be clearly spelt out.
  vi.        Proper rate analysis should be prepared for the NS items taking into account the prevailing market rates as well as the past accepted rates for identical NS items duly modified for geographical and conditions which may influence the rates.
 vii.        Basic rate for NS item shall be prepared at par with standard schedule of rates in items. For this purpose the market rate or the analysed rate of the NS item shall be discounted in accordance with percentage above / below accepted recently for SSR items of concerned. The basic rate thus worked out shall be vetted by Associate finance.
viii.        In all the new tenders, the tenderer should be advised to quote common percentage above / below for SSR items as well as for NS items. Such a common percentage of rates will facilitate quicker evaluation of tender and its finalisation. Besides the possibility of vitiation of tender as a result of variation in quantities of different items will also be eliminated.
( f ) Briefing Note –
After the tender opening the preparation of briefing notes is another serious activity in the process of tender finalisation. The briefing note is prepared by the executive office giving all facts, details, conditions, etc to assist the tender committee in finalisation of the tenders.
The tabulated comparative statement and briefing note both in duplicate together with the original tenders shall be sent for scrutiny to the section officer deputed for the purpose. The statement should be signed by him in token of his verification.
Q.3.-Explain the procedure laid down for –                                
   i.        Entering the measurements in MB.                        
  ii.        Maintenance of MB.                                             
 iii.        Testing checking of MB in      
i)    AEN Office.                                   
ii)   Divisional Engineer’s Office.
iii)  Divisional Account Office.
Ans.- ( i ) Entering the measurements in MB -
All measurement except as specified should be neatly taken down on the measurement book issued for the purpose and now here else. For large works a separate measurement book may be set apart or if found convenient two or more books may be set apart for different classes of works.
Each set of measurements should commence with entries stating.-
In the case of work done: -
  1. Full name of work as given in the estimate.
  2. Situation of work.
  3. Name of contractor.
  4. Number and date of agreement entered into with contractor or of work order issued in his favour.
  5. Dates of commencement and completion of work; and
  6. Date of measurement;
In the case of materials supplied: -
  1. Name of supplier;
  2. Number and date of agreement with supplier or of the order for supply;
  3. Purpose of supply;
  4. Dates of commencement and completion of supply; and Date of measurement;
and should end with the dated initials of the person making the measurements. A suitable abstract should then be prepared which should collect in the case of measurements for work done the total quantities of each distinct item of work relating to each sub-head of estimate.
As all payments for work or supplies are based on the quantities recorded in the measurement books, it is incumbent on the person taking the measurements to record the quantities clearly and accurately. If the measurements are taken in connection with a running contract account on which work has been previously measured, the reference to the last set of measurements should be recorded and if the entire job or contract has been completed, the fact should be recorded prominently and initialled by the person taking the measurements. If the measurements taken are the first set of measurements on a running account or the first and Final measurements, this fact should be suitably noted against the entries in the measurement book.
( ii ) Maintenance of MB –
The pages of the book should be machine-numbered and no page should on any account be torn out, nor should any entry be erased or defaced so as to be illegible. If a mistake be made, it should be corrected by crossing out the incorrect word or Figures, and the rewriting the correct words or Figures, and the correction thus made should be initialled. The entries be made directly in the measurement books at the site of work. The copying of entries flour another rough note book or similar record is strictly forbidden. A sensible record is the object to be aimed at as it may have to be produced as evidence in a Court of Law.
The entries in the measurement book should if possible be made in ink but when this is not possible, the entries should be recorded with indelible or special copying pencil so as to render it difficult to tamper with or to make unauthorised addition to or alterations in entries once made, the pencil entries should not be inked over, but left untouched. The entries in the "contents or area" column should however be invariably made in ink.
Entries should be recorded continuously in the measurement book. No blank pages should be left nor should any page be torn out the cancellation being attested. When any measurement are cancelled, the cancellation should be supported by the dated initials of the officer ordering the cancellation, or by a reference to his orders initialled by the officer who made the measurement. In either case, the reason for cancellation should be recorded.
Each measurement hook should be provided with an index which should be kept up to date.
From the measurement book, all quantities should be clearly traceable into the documents on which payments are made, and a reference to the voucher in which the quantities are entered for payment, as well as the date of entry should be given by an endorsement upon the original entries in the measurement book. No contract certificate or bill should be signed without thus crossing off the connected entry in the measurement book. and the document on which payment is made should invariably bear a reference to the number and page of the book in which the detailed measurements are recorded.
( iii ) Testing checking of MB in  -    
         i. ) AEN Office -
                      i.    Measurements are entered as per approved drawing and work carried out at site.
                     ii.    Rates are paid as per the accepted agreement.
                    iii.    Recoveries are correctly made for the excess material issued to the contractor.
                   iv.    All the recoveries for hiring of tools and plants are made.
                    v.    Water charges are recovered.
                   vi.    Test checked of the measurements entered by the IOWs are made.
                  vii.    Hidden measurements are not made as approximate and 100% test checked.
    ii.     Divisional Engineer’s Office –
  1. It is signed by the officer in token of his acceptance of the claims and also by the contractor in token of his acceptance of the correctness.
  2. Measurements have been recorded by competent authorities.
  3. The arithmetical calculations are correct and the charges are correctly classified and allocated.
  4. The work has been completed within the stipulated time.
  5. Payments are checked with reference to the previous bill.
  6. The method of measurements are correct.
   iii.     Divisional Account Office –
  1. Expenditure has received the sanction of the competent authority and has been incurred by an officer competent to incur and it does not involve a breach of the standards of financial propriety and is covered by provision in the sanctioned budget.
  2. Alteration if any have been duly attested both by the officer and the contractor.
  3. The rates claimed agree with those as entered in the agreement.
  4. There is no undue delay in making measurements.
  5. Recoveries have been correctly effected on account of material supplied by the railway.
  6. The officer has certified regarding the satisfactory completion of the work.
  7. Before making final payment it should be ensured that railway properties if issued for temporary use of the contractor have been returned in good condition.
  8. The Place and method of payment is indicated.
  9. The Quantities executed are according to the sanctioned plans and estimates.
Or
Q.3 - What are the powers for acceptance of tenders at various levels and to record measurement by Engineering subordinates and officers for works. And supply of materials on open line construction.       

Ans.- Recording of Measurements-
On the open line organisation of the Railways the following powers can be exercised in recording measurements:-
  1. Inspectors of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors in Gr. (Rs. 1600-2660) and Gr.  (Rs. 2000-3200), can. record all measurements including ballast measurements subject to the test checks given below, but cannot record earth work sectional measurements unless they aye, specially nominated by the Assistant Engineer on considerations of competency and reliability. A 10% cheek by the, Assistant Engineer is necessary for works costing up to Rs. 25,000/-, if the value of the work exceeds the estimated cost by more than 10% and for works costing above Rs. 25,000/- a 20% check by Assistant Engineer, is necessary. In the case of ballast and pitching stones measurements a 100% check on quantity and quantity by the Assistant engineer is necessary. The Check of the Assistant Engineer in respect of earth work sectional measurements may be done at his discretion. Those Inspectors in Gr. (Rs. 2000-3200) may finalize measurements for work up to Rs. 10,000/- even when the total value of the works exceeds the estimated value by more than 10%.
  2. Inspector of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors in Grade (Rs. 1400-2300) when they holds independent charge, can record measurements for works costing up to Rs. 25,000/- each, subject to a test check of 20% by the Assistant Engineer.
  3. Sub-Overseers,-Mistries having a diploma in Engineering and having more than three years of service and those not having a diploma in Engineering, but having six years experience to be nominated by name by the Divisional Engineer can record measurements of works up to Rs. 10,000/-, subject to a test cheek of 20% by the Inspector of Works.
On construction projects and special works. Sub-Overseer Mistries cannot record measurements. Inspector of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors cannot record measurements for the supply of ballast, pitching stones and earth work. For all other works, Inspectors of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors in Grade (Rs. 1600-2660) & (Rs. 2000-3200), can record measurements up to a value of Rupees One lakh, subject to a 20% test check by the Assistant Engineer. Measurement of ballast and pitching stories. classification of ballast and measurement for earth work will be done by the Assistant Engineer.
For measurement of earthwork cross sections levels may be recorded by Inspector of Works in the field book which should be in ink or inked before test checking by the Assistant Engineer. The Assistant Engineer should exercise a check of 100 per cent in the case of levels along the centre line of alignment. and not less than 20% of the remaining levels of the cross sections with the provision that this cheek should invariably be carried out in cross sections having heavy cross slopes. All the corrections in the field book must be initialled by the Assistant Engineer and no subsequent corrections should be made by any person other than the Assistant Engineer who while doing so should record the reasons for the same. The signature of the contractor or his authorised agent should be taken on every field book accepting the correctness of levels recorded there in.
Plotting of the cross sections may be done on graph paper taking care that sufficiently large scale is adopted for plotting and there is not much distortion of horizontal and vertical scales adopted. After plotting the cross sections the levels should be inked and sheet containing the cross section should be signed by the Inspector of Works, Assistant Engineer and the contractor. While plotting the cross sections, the proposed theoretical profiles of the earth work should also be plotted to ensure that the work is done to actual requirements and to avoid future claims from the contractors. For computing the quantity of earthwork arithmetical calculation is to be preferred but if necessary counting of square method can also be adopted.
In the case of bridge girders and steel fabricated structures the contractor can be permitted to submit his bill based on completion drawings. These bills may be checked in the Drawing Office and accepted for payment. No detailed measurements need be recorded in such cases by the Assistant Engineer in the measurement book.
PART ‘ B ‘
Q.1.- Write short notes on any Four of the following -                             
i)    Productivity linked Bonus.               
ii)   Communal Roster.
iii)  Break down allowance.                           
iv) Final Settlement payment on superannuation.
v)  Conveyance allowance.        
vi) Family Pension.                          
vii)Staff Benefit Fund.    

Ans.- ( i ) Productivity linked bonus-

The grant of productivity-linked bonus is intended to provide substantial motivation towards achieving higher productivity by way of increased out put by the employees and improved quality of service.

The productivity shall be determined on the basis of revenue traffic tone kilometers achieved each year, derived from thee audited and financial year 1977-78 has been adopted as base year for this purpose.
The scheme is applicable to –
a)    All Railway employees other than Railway protection force.
b)    Casual Labour having temporary status and substitutes with not less than 120 days continuous service.
c)    Daily rated casual labour employed of projects having completed continuous service of 180 days.
P.L.B. shall be payable to all class III & Class IV staff.
( ii ) Communal Roster –
To give proper effect to the reservation prescribed every appointing authority should treat vacancies as reserved or unreserved according to a modal roster each of 40 or 100 points as described bellows –
  1. Direct recruitment made on all India basis the posts, scale of which go beyond Rs 425/- 40 point roster.
  2. Direct recruitment to class III and class IV posts scale of which do not go beyond Rs. 425/- 100 point roster.
  3. For all posts filled by promotion to which reservation apply 40 point roster.
Roster have to be maintained separately for –
  1. Permanent appointments and appointments likely to become permanent or continuous indefinitely.
  2. Temporary appointment in each grade or post or group separately for leave vacancies for 45 days or more.
  3. Adhoc promotion pending selection / suitability test etc for 45 days or more.
The points which are specified as reserved points for these communities in a 40 point roster are as under-     SC :- 1, 8, 14,  22,  28,   36,  ……..        ST :- 4, 17, 31, ….
( iii ) Break down allowances  -
Break down allowance is an allowance given to relief train , Electrical staff and certain categories of other non gazetted staff employed in running sheds and C & W depot, who are earmarked for attending to break down duties in connection with a break down trains or engine. These staff shall be given a break down allowance on monthly basis at the rates prescribed. Moreover they will also be given other concessions as below wherever employed on break down duties. These other concessions will also be admissible to other non gazetted staff besides those earmarked, whenever they are employed on break down duties which may be either in connection with breakdown duties of a train or engine or breach or wash away on the line which interrupts normal traffic or break down of normal traffic on running lines due to :
  1. Snapping of overhead electric traction/ lines which involves calling of tower wagon or breakdown lorry.
  2. Damage or bursting of points,
  3. Break down of interlocked lifting barriers and
  4. Total interruption of communications, Telecommunications or of power supply. 

( iv ) Final Settlement on superannuation –
Final Settlement on superannuation to be done on basis of emoluments and average emoluments which have primary significance in determination of pension and retirement Gratuity. Gratuity is normally based on emoluments and pension is based on average emoluments.
Emoluments for the purpose of determination of pension / Gratuities include only basic pay.
Average emoluments is the average of the emoluments drawn during the last ten months of service.
Pension is determined on the basis of average emoluments. Gratuity is based on the emoluments drawn at the time of retirement.
Full pension is admissible to an employee who retires after completing qualifying service of not less than thirty three years and the amount of pension is determined at 50% of the average emoluments.        
( v ) Conveyance allowance
Conveyance allowance is granted to gazetted and non gazzetted Railway servants as under –
              i.     Gazetted and non gazetted Railway servants who maintain their own Motor Car / Motor Cycle / Scooters / Moped and has to under take frequent journeys on official business in his conveyance.
             ii.     Medical Officer for paying frequent visit and performing other official duties.
They will have to pay minimum 20 domiciliary visits per month for which they will maintain a visit book. They will not get any TA within the irrespective of distance being more than 8 Kms. Or less.
( vi ) Family Pension –
With effect from 1.1.1964 this pension scheme has been started. In case a railway pensioner or a railway servant dies the family is entitled for monthly pension.
No condition in regard to the length of service, status of the employee is laid down for grant of family pension. But if the employee at the time of his retirement is not eligible for pension the question of family pension does not arise.
The pension is based on the last pay drawn and payable @ 30% of the last pay drawn subject to minimum of Rs.1275 p.m. plus D.A. admissible from time to time . This is called as relief.
No commutation of family pension is allowed.
If the family pensioner is employed she is not eligible for D.A. relief on her pension.
The pensioner may get family pension of his / her spouse.
Family pension is payable to –
  1. Widow or widower for life or till remarriage whichever earlier.
  2. Sons blow 25 years and not earning.
  3. Daughter below 25 years of age and not married and not earning.
  4. Physically handicapped child for life if not earning.
In case of dispute the settlement dues are paid on the basis of the succession certificate issued by the court of law.
In case of blind or mentally retarded son/daughter the family pension is payable through guardian appointed by the court.

( vii ) Staff Benefit Fund -
This is a fund intended to afford certain kinds of amenities and benefits to no gazetted staff as well as to gazetted officers of the Railway over and the normal facilities offered by the Railway administration from out of Railway funds direct. This is managed by a committee in which the chairman is an officer not below the rank of a Deputy need of a department nominated by the General Manager one representative elected from the staff.

Q.2.- Answer any Three of the following -                         
a)    What notice required to be displayed in offices / depots under Hours of Employment regulation?
b)    Distinguish between dismissal and removal from service.
c)    How much DCRG a railway servant is due to receive on superannuation.
d)    What is meant by Temporary partial Disablement, Permanent Partial Disablement. And Total Disablement for the purpose of payment of compensation?

Ans.- ( a ) The following notice are required to be displayed :-
              i.     Maximum number of workman working in a room.
             ii.     Weekly holidays.
            iii.     Cancellation of holidays.
           iv.     Periods of work for adults.
            v.     Abstracts of the Act and rules. Name and address of the Inspection and certifying surgeon.
           vi.     Notices regarding health , safety and welfare workers.

Ans.- ( b ) Dismissal and removal from service -
Dismissal from service and removal from service are penalties under the D & A Rules. The procedure for inflicting any of these penalties on a railway servant is the same. These penalties carry with them different disadvantage in getting retirement benefits.
While dismissal from service will ordinarily be a disqualification for future employment under the Government or the railway administration, removal from service will not be treated as such for future employment.
Both dismissal and removal from service entail forfeiture of post service for which no pensionary benefits are admissible to a railway servant removed or dismissed from railway service. A compassionate grant and or allowance which shall not exceed 2/3rd of the pensionary benefits as would have been admissible to the railway servant normally may however be granted to the person concerned at the discretion of the competent authority. Under P.F. rules, S.C. to P.F. will not be credited to the account of a subscriber if he is dismissed from service but in case of removal from service this can be granted with the sanction of the President if the subscriber is a gazatted officer and in case of non gazatted staff with the sanction of the Controlling Officer / General Manager. Deductions of any amount of Government contribution to P.F. Bonus may be made under orders of the president in case of a gazetted Officer and the General Manager in other cases if the subscriber has been dismissed from service but Government contribution cannot be withheld in case of removal from service.
Post retirement passes under normal rules are admissible to an employee removed from service but these are not admissible on dismissal from service.

( d ) Temporary partial Disablement, Permanent Partial Disablement. And Total Disablement –
Temporary partial Disablement - Where the disablement is of a temporary nature, such disablement as reduces the earning capacity of a workman in any employment in which he was engaged at the time of the accident resulting in the disablement
Permanent Partial disablement - Where the disablement is of a permanent nature, such disablement as reduces his earning capacity in every employment which he was capable of undertaking at that time.
Permanent Total disablement -  Such disablement, whether of a temporary or permanent nature, as incapacitates a workman for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of the accident resulting in such disablement.
The amount of compensation is payable only if the injury manifest beyond the period of three days following the date of accident. Amount of compensation Payable – 60 % of average monthly wages ( max. 2000 ) multiplied by age factor = Rs. 60000/- minimum.  


Q.3.- Write in details the salient features of any one of the following –
i)    Hours of Employment Regulation.
ii)   Workmen Compensation Act.

Ans.- ( I ) Hours of Employment Regulation –
The working hours and periodic rest of all railway servants are governed by the Hours of Employment Regulations. The rules regarding temporary exemptions from these Regulations as regards hours of work, periodic rest or the period of rest between the end of one period of duty ( rostered duty ) and the compensation same by payment of overtime allowance and or compensatory rest or off are also contained in these Regulations. Orders issued on these Regulations also give a list of staff who are treated as Excluded from the provisions of limitations of hours of work as well as from the provisions periodic rest and which such staff are not entitled to any overtime payment, instructions having been given in these Regulations to Railways Administrations to see on humanitarian grounds that unreasonable conditions are not imposed on them.

( ii ) The workmen’s compensation Act 1923 –
This act provides for the payment by certain classes of employers to their workman of compensation, as per schedules prescribed for injury owing to accident arising out of and in the hours of employment as a result of which a workman may have died or becomes disabled for a period of more than 3 days. It also makes provision for compensation for contracting any occupational disease peculiar to the employment. The contracting where of being deemed to be an injury by accident.
PART ‘ C ‘
Q.1.-  a ) Write short notes on any two of the following -                         
a.   Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act 1963.
b.   Parliamentary Committee on Official Languages.
c.   Various incentive schemes for encouraging the use of official Language in offices.

Ans.- ( a )
a. Section 3 ( 3 ) of Official Language Act 1963 –
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b.            Parliamentary Committee on Official Languages.
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c. Various incentive schemes for encouraging the use of official Language in offices.
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B ) List the equipments required for Alumino Thermit Welding of Rail joint by short pre heating process. 

Ans.- List the equipments required for Alumino Thermit Welding of Rail joint by short pre heating process.
                                                                       S.No.
Description
Quantity
Mass welding
Repair welding
A
Pre Heating Equipment


1.
Oxy-LPG torch (burner)
2 Nos.
1 No.
2.
Oxygen cylinder with pressure gauge
2 Nos.
1 No.
3.
LPG cylinder with pressure gauge
2 Nos.
1 No.
4.
Torch (burner) stand
2 Nos.
1 No.
5.
Connecting hose pipe
4 Nos.
2 Nos.
B
Other Equipment


1.
Crucible complete
2 Nos.
1 No.
2.
Crucible caps
2 Nos.
1 No.
3.
Crucible forks
2 Nos.
1 No.
4.
Crucible stands
2 Nos.
1 No.
5.
Crucible rings
2 Nos.
1 No.
6.
Mould pressure (clamp)
2 Nos.
1 No.
7.
Cleaning rod round
2 Nos.
1 No.
8.
Tapping rod
1 No.
1 No.
9.
Straight edge 1 m long
2 Nos.
1 No.
10.
Straight edge 10 cm long
2 Nos.
1 No.
11.
Aluminium steel rod for thermal plugging
2 Nos.
2 Nos.
12.
Leather washers for pump
4 Nos.
2 Nos.
13.
Gap gauges and height gauge
2 Nos.
1 No.
14.
Filler gauge
2 Nos.
1 No.
15.
Tools for punching the marking
2 Nos.
1 No.
16.
Mould shoes
6 pairs
2 pairs
17.
Stop watches
1 No.
1 No.
18.
Pyrometer/thermal chalk for measurement of rail temperature
1 No.
1 No.
19.
Wooden wedges for rail alignment
24 Nos.
1 No.
20.
First aid box filled with medicines, bandages, cotton, etc.
1 No.
12 Nos.
21.
Mirror 150 x 100 mm with handle
2 Nos.
1 No.
22.
Tool box containing :



(i) Hot sets (chisels) (For emergency use only)
2 Nos.
1 No.

(ii) Funnel tin (for pouring petrol)
1 No.
1 No.

(iii) Adjustable spanner
1 No.
1 No.

(iv) Hammer 1 kg
1 No.
1 No.

iv) Sledge hammer double panel 5 kg
2 Nos.
2 Nos.

(vi) Steel wire brush Blue goggles
1 No.
1 No.

viii) Paint brush 50 mm
2 pairs
1 pair

(ix) Slag container (bowl)
1 No.
1 No.

(x) Asbestos gloves
2 Nos.
1 No.

(xi) Hose clips
4 pairs
2 pairs

(xii) Pliers
4 Nos.
4 Nos.

(xiii) Rail file 350 x 40 x 6 mm (For emergency use only)
1 No.
1 No.
23
Weld trimmer
4 Nos.
2 Nos.
24.
Insulation hood for control cooling (for 110 UTS rail welding)
1 No.
1 No.
25.
Rail profile guided grinding trolley
1 No.
1 No.
26.
To ensure quality, protective clothing, shoes gear & leather gloves
1 No.
1 No.

                                                                             
Q.2.- Write short notes on any Four  of the following -            
i)    Switch Expansion Joint.
ii)   Compensation for curvature on gradients.
iii)  Over Dimensional Consignment ( ODC ).
iv) Pressure filter for drinking water supply.
v)  Numerical Rating of Bridges.
vi) Painting schedule for steel Bridge girders.
vii)River Training works.

Ans.-
( I ) Switch  & Expansion Joint ( SEJ ) –
Switch Expansion, Joint (SEJ) is an expansion joint installed at each end of LWR/CWR to permit expansion/contraction of the adjoining breathing lengths due to temperature variations.
The exact location of SEJ shall be fixed taking into account the location of various obligatory paints such as level crossings, girder bridges, points and crossings gradients, curves and insulated joints. SEJ with straight tongue and stock shall not be located on curves sharper than 0.5 degree (3500 m radius) as far as possible. SEJ shall not be located on transition of curves.

( ii ) Compensation for curvature on gradient:-
The ruling gradient is required to be compensated on curves to offset the extra resistance due to curvature. The curve resistance depends upon a number of variable factors but for simplicity reasons it is taken as a percentage per degree of curve.
Compensation for curvature should be given in all cases where the existing gradient when added to the curve compensation exceeds the ruling gradient. The compensation to be allowed should ordinarily be 70/R percent.(0.04 percent per degree of curvature) for Broad Gauge, 52.5/R per cent (0.03 percent per degree of curvature) for Metre Gauge and 35/R per cent (0.02 per cent per degree of curvature) for Narrow Gauge(762 mm.) where R is the radius of curvature in metres.

 ( iii ) Over Dimensional Consignment –
Over Dimensional Consignment may be brought out here that the net clearance between the consignment as loaded and the fixed structure should be calculated after making an allowance from the gross clearance of 75 mm for bounce in the vertical direction on a straight track. In case of curved track the following additional factors should be taken into account.
  1. Horizontal Clearance – Allowance for lean due to super elevation and over head due to curvatures additional lurch on curves.
  2. Vertical Clearance – Vertical tilt to be added to the height of consignment.
Depending on the dimensions of the fully loaded consignments after allowing the extra clearance.

( iv ) Pressure filter for drinking water supply –
These are just like small rapid sand filters placed in closed vessels. Water passed under pressure such filters are located in airtight vessels. Water from the sedimentation tanks is pumped into the filter by mean of pumps. The pressure varies from 3 to 7 kg pressure. Filters are classified as –
1)         Horizontal pressure filter.
2)         Vertical Pressure filter.
The diameter varies from 0.30 m to 2.75 m and height varies from 2 m to 2.5 m in case of vertical pressure filter. In case of horizontal pressure filters the diameter varies from 2 to 3 m and length up to 9 m. The rate of filtration is 6000 to 15000 Lit. / hr / m2 of filter area. The cleaning is done in a similar way as in case of rapid sand filter. In order to increase the rate of filtration air pressure is generally maintained on the water surface.
These are less efficient than rapid sand filters in removing turbidities and bacteria’s. The quality of water is not good. These are preferred for treating smaller quantities of water and are best suited for swimming pools, railway stations, private estates, individual industries etc.

( v ) Numerical rating of Bridges  -
In the numerical rating system, the condition of a bridge is represented by a number consisting eight digits. This eight digit number is called as unique rating number ( URN ).
In this eight digit URN, the first digit describes the over all condition of the bridge and this number is known as over all rating number ( ORN ).
The remaining seven digits are known as condition rating number ( CRN ) and these describes the physical condition of the different components of the bridges.

Digit

Part of the Bridge which is described by the digit.
Ist
Over all condition of the bridge.
Iind
Condition of the Foundation & Flooring.
IIIrd
Condition of the Masonry / concrete sub- structure.
Ivth
Condition of the Bed training / Protective works.
Vth
Condition of the Bed Block.
Vith
Condition of the Bearing & expansion arrangement.
VIIth
Condition of the super structure – girder / slab / arch / pipe etc.
VIIIth
Condition of the track structure.
Condition Rating Number
A Condition which warrants rebuilding / re-habilitation immediately.
A Condition which requires rebuilding / re-habilitation on program basis.
A Condition which requires major / special repairs.
A Condition which requires routine maintenance.
Sound Condition.
Not applicable.
Not inspected.
Over all rating number will be lowest CRN given to a Bridge except 0.
Numerical code given to a bridge helps in identifying the progressive deterioration in the bridge.
NRS is convenient for storage of the date in the computer.
NRS is not in any way linked to the load carrying capacity of the bridge.

( vi ) Painting schedule for steel bridge girders  -
Girder painting is essentially an application of surface coating to the steel work so as to inhibit corrosion. The basic principle underlying maintenance painting is not to allow deterioration of existing paint film to reach such a stage that rusting starts underneath the paint film.
 The entire steel work of a girder should be painted at regular intervals which may vary from six years in arid zones to one year in highly corrosive areas.

( vii ) River Training Works-
The following types of river training works are generally adopted on the Indian Railways:-
1. Embankments  -  ( a ) Marginal Embankment.    ( b ) Retired Embankment.
2. Guide Bunds -      ( a )  Guide Banks.   ( b ) Marginal Bunds. ( c ) Closure Bunds.
3. Spurs /  Groynes.
4. Cut Offs / Assisted cut offs.
4. Pitching of Bank / Bank Revetments.
5. Pitched island.

Q.3.-  a ) Draw a neat hand sketch of 30.5 m through type girder ( side elevation and cross section ) and label ( name ) its various components. Dimensions are not important.
           B ) What are the R.H. Girders and where are they used.                 
Ans.- ( a ) Sketch of 30.5 m through type girder –
( b ) R. H. Girder –
R.H. Girder are the box type built up duplicated girder. These are special girders ‘ Restricted Head way having over all depth 0.85 m. are used to relieve the existing bridge or its approaches. It would be observed that majority of the old culverts and bridge up to 12.2 m openings are arches and at the time of carrying in situ repairs to these arches under traffic, The severe restrictions of the clearance that could be made available for inserting these girders being merely equal to the cushion that has been provided above the crown of the arch and below the sleeper has to be 1.00 m. The length of R.H. Girder should be decided taking into consideration height of embankment , slope of exaction depth. R.H. Girder are normally available for span in the Central Railway 53’- 6’’, 44’ & 24’. Alternatively if some released girders are available these can also be used as service girders for temporary arrangements.
The following speed restriction should be imposed while using R.H.Girder.
        i.Non stop 16 Kmph if height of sleeper crib is up to 1.52 m.
       ii.Stop dead and 8 kmph if height of sleeper crib is above 1.52 m.
Q.4.- Write short notes on any four of the following -                           
i)    Concrete mix design.         
ii)   Ready mix concrete and admixtures.  
iii)  Permanent and Temporary speed restriction and Engineering Time Allowance.
iv) Scour depth, Foundation level and danger level.
v)  Design cant, cant deficiency and cant excess.
vi) Forging and machining.
Ans.- ( I ) Concrete Design mix –
The mix shall be designed to produce the grade of concrete having the required workability and characteristic strength not less than the appropriate value. The tar gate mean strength of concrete mix should be equal to the characteristic strength plus 1.65 times the standard deviation.
The objective of concrete mix design is to produce a concrete of desired compressive strength with adequate workability. Design of concrete mix involves determine of the proportions of cement , water, course and fine aggregates.
( ii ) Ready mix concrete and admixtures-
Ready Mixed Concrete -
Ready mixed concrete may be used, wherever required. It shall conform to the specifications of concrete. As ready mixed concrete is available for placement after lapse of transit time, reduction in workability occurs, which may lead to difficulty in placement of concrete. In addition, in case of longer transit time, initial setting of concrete may also takes place, which may render it unusable. Thus, while planning for using of Ready Mixed Concrete, these aspects should be kept in view.
Generally admixtures like water reducing agent, retarder etc. are used in Ready Mixed Concrete for retention of desired workability and to avoid setting of concrete.
Under any circumstances, retempering i.e. addition of water after initial mixing shall not be allowed, as it may affect the strength and other properties of concrete.
The concrete shall be delivered completely to the site of work within 1½ hours (when the atmospheric temperature is above 200C) and within 2 hours (when the atmospheric temperature is at or below 200C) of adding the mixing water to the dry mix of cement and aggregate or adding the cement to the aggregate, whichever is earlier. In case, location of site of construction is such that this time period is considered inadequate, increased time period may be specified.
The Ready Mixed Concrete shall be transported in concrete transit Agitators. Agitating speed of the agitators during transit shall not be less than 2 revolutions per minute not more than 6 revolution per minute.
Admixtures
The Chief Engineer may permit the use of admixtures for imparting special characteristics to the concrete or mortar on satisfactory evidence that the use of such admixtures does not adversely affect the properties of concrete or mortar particularly with respect to strength, volume change, durability and has no deleterious effect on reinforcement.
Calcium chloride or admixtures containing calcium chloride shall not be used in structural concrete containing reinforcement, prestressing tendons or other embedded metal.
The admixture containing Cl & SO3  ions shall not be used. Admixtures containing nitrates shall also not be used. Admixtures based on thiocyanate may promote corrosion and therefore shall be prohibited.
These are the substance which are added to the concrete to improve its qualities either its placing or in its subsequent performance. An admixture may be added to the mixing water to the batch before or during mixing. If its presence in concrete effects the properties of the concrete it may be intergrout with the clinker during the manufacture of cement. Gypsum is not an admixture as it is used in the normal manufacture of cement.
Admixtures are not generally recommended they may be used if they do not effect the durability and compressive strength by more than 10%.
Admixtures are added to improve the workability reduction of heat evolution and bleeding increasing setting time and prevention of shrinkage.
Admixtures can be divided into following classes according to the characteristic effects produced by them – ( a ) Workability agent.  ( b ) Retarders. ( c ) Accelerators. ( d ) Water repelling agents. ( e ) Air entraining agents. ( f ) Gas forming agents. ( g ) Pozzolanic materials.
Fly ash surkhi ground with cement carbohydrate salts, Heat treated raw shales or clay, Fine sand, Hydrated lime , Talc pulverized stone, Calcium chloride, natural cements, Blast furnace slag etc are the commonly used as admixtures.
( iii ) Permanent and Temporary speed restriction and Engineering Time Allowance -
Temporary Speed restriction –
The Temporary  speed restrictions to be imposed during various sequences of work such as Opening, relaying and initial packing, through packing, Picking up of slacks as required, tamping, Attention to track as required, These consists of :
(a) Caution indicator.
(b) Speed indicator.
(c ) Stop indicator.
(d) Termination indicators ( T/P & T/G).
Permanent speed restriction -
Permanent speed restrictions in force are notified in working time-tables. The speed indicators are erected to indicate to the Drivers the speed restrictions to be observed e.g., between stations, and at stations due to weaker/non standard track/ bridges, restrictions on curves, grades and points and crossings etc.
The indicators to be used are similar to those used for temporary restrictions, namely, caution indicator, speed/stop indicators and termination indicators (T/P&T/G). The details of the indicators and the distance at which they are to be fixed are the same in both the cases
The permanent indicators need not be flood lit at night as in the case of temporary indicators/ signals.
Engineering Allowance -
The Divisional Engineer in consultation with the Operating Department. Where necessary, separate power and crew should be arranged. Provision of Engineering time allowance in the working time table should be arranged with the Traffic Department.
( vi ) Scour depth, Foundation level and danger level -
Depth of Scour-
The maximum scour depth in a stream can be ascertained when ever possible by actual sounding at or near the site proposed for the bridge during or immediately after a flood. Before the scour holes have had time to silt up due to allowance should be made in the observed depth for increase in scour resulting from-
  1. The designed discharge being greater than the flood discharge during which the scour was observed.
  2. The increase in velocity due to the obstruction in flow caused by construction of the bridge.
Where the above practical method of determining scour is not possible the following theoretical method may be used as a guide when dealing with natural streams is alluvial beds.       D = 0.473 [ Q / F ] 
Where D = Depth of scour below HFL for regime conditions in a stable channel in meters.
           Q = Design discharge in cumecs.  
           F= Silt factor = 1.76 √ m , m is the mean diameter of particles in mm.
Foundation Level –
Foundation Level is the level of bottom most level of Bridge foundation. Foundation is that part of structure which transfer the load from the structure to the soil below. It provides a level base for the superstructure. Foundation include the portion of the structure below the ground level.
Danger level –
It is not possible to lay down any adhoc levels for fixing danger levels. It has to be decided on the spot for each and every individual bridge depending upon the site conditions. Local conditions such as nature of bed, condition of approach bank, depth of foundation & free board to be allowed should influence the decision.
The marking of danger level would imply that is would be safe for the flood water to reach up to the danger level with out affecting the safety of the bridge structure or of its foundations or approaches. Danger level for a particular bridge should be fixed after site inspection, examination of records of past history, local enquiries about flood, afflux and velocity of water under bridge.
( v ) Design cant, cant deficiency and cant excess –
Design cant
Design cant  is the cant for a particular speed at which the amount of centrifugal force dove loped in the curved track exactly balanced.
The Equilibrium Cant is given by the formula -    e = GV2 / 127 R
Where – e = Equilibrium Cant in mm. , G = Gauge in mm. , V = Speed in kmph. ,
               R = Radius of curve in meter.
Cant Deficency –
Cant Deficency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.
Cant excess –
Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the actual cant and the theoretical cant required for such lower speed.
( vi ) Forging and machining -
Q.5.- Write in detail the various methods of corrosion protection of steel i.e. painting, epoxy painting, galvanizing and metalizing. Also write their relative advantages and disadvantages.                                                                                     
Ans. Protective Painting of Steel Girders –
Maintenance Engineer has to adopt proper painting of steel girder scheme during maintenance for protect corrosion. Painting is recommended to avoid frequent painting, metallising or epoxy painting for existing girders. Paint should be applied in two coats – ( I ) Primer coat – Two coats of ready mixed paint red lead priming. Or one coat of ready mixed paint zinc chromate priming. ( ii ) Finishing coat – Two coat of aluminum coat.
Advantage –
            i.Protect the corrosion.
           ii.Paint is economical compare with other painting scheme.
Disadvantage –
Maximum life of painting 5 to 7 year.
Epoxy Painting –
Use of epoxy painting system for railway girders has been introduced recently. Epoxy paint apply in three coats – ( I ) Primer coat – Apply by brush the coat of epoxy zinc phosphate primer. ( ii ) Intermediate coat – Apply by brush one coat of micaceous iron oxide. ( iii ) Finishing coat – Apply by brush two coats of polyurethane aluminum finishing.
Advantage –
            i.Epoxy paints have good adhesion and abrasion power.
           ii.Epoxy based paints can be used in lieu of metallising in the field for existing girders.
          iii.Epoxy painting can be achieved with longer life.
          iv.Life of epoxy painting is 12 to 15 years.
Disadvantage –
Which is more costly.
Galvanizing -
Protective coating by Galvanizing  with sprayed Galvanize
Advantage –
            i.Galvanizing  protection will be more effective and economical.
           ii.Life of Galvanizing  will be 7 to 10 year.
Disadvantage –
Galvanizing work only done in workshop at the time of fabrication.
Metallising –
Protective coating by metallising with sprayed aluminum to 150 micro thickness is to be provided .
Advantage –
          iii.Metallising protection will be more effective and economical.
          iv.Life of metallising will be 25 to 30 year.
Disadvantage –
Site metallising is not found effective
Q.6.- What procedure is required to be followed for the following items of track maintenance in LWR / CWR track.
i)    Cleaning of ballast by BCM.                               
ii)   Over hauling of level crossing.                              
iii)  Rectification of rail fracture.                                  
iv) Scattered renewal of sleepers.                           
Ans.- ( I ) Cleaning of ballast by BCM –
The function of ballast cleaning machine is to carry out cleaning of ballast by removing muck, thereby improving drainage of track and elasticity of the ballast bed. Basically, the machine excavates and picks up ballast by means of cutter chain and carries it to a set of vibrating screens where muck is separated and thrown out by a chute and clean ballast is transferred back to the track.
Ballast Cleaning Machines have following basic Units:-
i) Excavating Unit
ii) Screening Unit
iii) Conveyer system for distribution of ballast and disposal of muck
iv) Track lifting and slewing unit.
v) Recording unit.
The rear engine provides power for the hydraulic pumps for the excavation chain drive and the screen drive and also powers the hydraulic propulsion for travelling.
For excavating the ballast, there is endless scraper chain located between the bogies and running under the track when working. The chain is basically composed of scraper blades with fingers, intermediate links and bolts. Chain speed is variable between 2.4 to 4.0 metres per second.
At the beginning of work at a site, the cutter bar is inserted underneath the sleepers and connected to the lateral guides by quick action locks. Hydraulic hoists are provided for easy handling of the cutter bar. At the end of the work at a particular site, the cutter bar is removed.
The screening unit consists of three vibrating steel sieves of the following square mesh sizes: Upper screen – 80 mm, middle screen – 50 mm ,  lower screen – 36 mm.
The vibrations are provided by hydraulically driven rotating fly weights.
The distributing conveyors receive the cleaned ballast and distribute it evenly across the entire surface of track right behind the excavation chain.
From underneath the screening unit, the waste drops to a conveyor belt which transports it to a hydraulically adjustable belt controlled from the cabin. The waste can be discharged outside the track by means of the tilting waste conveyor.
( ii ) Overhauling of Level xing. -
Each level crossing except those laid with PSC sleepers must be opened out and the condition of sleepers and fittings, rails and fastenings inspected at least once a year or more frequently, as warranted by conditions. However, level crossings laid with PSC sleepers should be overhauled with each cycle of machine packing or more frequently as warranted by conditions and in no case shall opening be delayed by more than two years. In all cases, rails and fastenings in contact with the road shall be thoroughly cleaned with wire brush and a coat of coal tar/anti-corrosive paint applied. Flange way clearances, cross level, gauge and alignment should be checked and corrected as necessary, and the track packed thoroughly before reopening the level crossing for road traffic.
( iii ) Rectification of rail Fractures-                                              
Equipment required - i) Special 1 metre long fishplates with screw clamps and Joggled fishplates with bolted clamps (for fractures at welded joints).
ii) Steel tape capable of reading unto one mm.
iii) Alumino-thermic welding and finishing equipment.      iv) Equipment for destressing.
v) 6.5 metre long sawn rail cut piece of the same section as LWR duly tested by USFD.
vi) Rail closures of suitable lengths.       vii) Equipment for protection of track.
viii) Equipment for night working.
Procedure for repairs - If any fracture takes place on LWR/CWR, immediate action shall be taken by the official who detected the fracture to suspend the traffic and to protect the line. He shall report the fracture to the Gang mate Key man/PWI, who shall arrange for making emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately. Repairs shall be carried out in four stages as described below
a) Emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately.
b) Temporary repairs.
c) Permanent repairs.
d) Destressing
 (iv ) Scattered Renewal of sleeper –
 In this case, unserviceable rails, sleepers and fastenings are replaced by identical sections of serviceable and nearly the same vintage track components. These are carried out in isolated locations and not more than 10 rails and/or 250 sleepers in a gang beat in a year. Such renewals are a part of normal maintenance operations.
Q.7.- What do you understand by OMC. What is mechanical compaction of earth work and what system you will observe for quality control measurements and payments to the contractor? Draw the typical cross section of a double line track in bank and cutting.     
Ans.- Optimum moisture content –
The maximum moisture content in the soil after which the addition of water creates hindrance in bringing the particles closer, is called Optimum moisture content ( OMC ).
It may be clearly noted if the moisture content of the soil is more than the Optimum moisture content no compaction of the soil is possible because of too wetness.
Mechanical compaction of earth work -
Compaction is the process of increasing the density of soil by mechanical means by packing the soil particles closer together with reduction of air voids and to obtain a homogeneous soil mass having improved soil properties. Compaction brings many desirable changes in the soil properties as follows:
a) Helps soils to acquire increase in strength.
b) Reduces compressibility.
c) Increases density and reduces permeability.
d) Reduction in erodability.
e) Results in homogenous uniform soil mass of known properties.
f) Reduction in frost susceptibility in cold regions.
However, while compaction of earthwork is a necessary condition to achieve a stable formation, it does not help in checking against the following causes which needs to be taken care during the design of bank or cutting :
(i) Excessive creep or slipping of slopes .
(ii) Swelling and shrinkage characteristic of soils due to variation in moisture content.
(iii) Mud pumping at ballast - soil interface.
(iv) Settlements due to consolidation of bank.
Factors Affecting Compaction in the Field:- 
(a) Compacting Effort: In modern construction projects, heavy compaction machinery are deployed to provide compaction energy. Sheep foot rollers or pneumatic rollers provide the kneading action. Silty soil can be effectively compacted by Sheep foot roller/pneumatic roller or smooth wheel roller. For compacting sandy and gravelly soil, vibratory rollers are most effective. If granular soil have some fines both smooth wheeled and pneumatic rollers can be used.
(b) Moisture Control: Proper control of moisture content in soil is necessary for achieving desired density. Maximum density with minimum compacting effort can be achieved by compaction of soil near its OMC (Optimum Moisture Content). If natural moisture content of the soil is less than the OMC, calculated amount of water should be added with sprinkler attached to water tanker and mixed with soil by motor grader for uniform moisture content. When soil is too wet it is required to be dried by aeration to reach up to OMC.
(c) Soil Type: Type of soil has a great influence on its compaction characteristics.
(d) Thickness of Layer:-Layer thickness depends upon type of soil involved and type of roller its weight and contact pressure of its drums. Normally, 200 – 300 mm layer thickness is optimum in the field for achieving homogenous compaction.
(e) Number of Passes: Density of soil will increase with the number of passes of roller.
Method of Measurement and Payment -
            i.The initial rate for earthwork, carried out manually, will include the first lead of 50 metres and 2 metre lift free.
           ii.Lift from borrow pits to natural ground level is not to be taken into account in any payment for lift, unless the pit is deeper than 1.6 metres and then, only the portion below 1.5 metres will be allowed payment for additional lift.
          iii.The Engineer will then enter the reduced levels at which such soil is met on the relevant cross-section in his Classification Register, whenever a change of classification is involved, and obtain the initials of the Contractor on the reduced levels entered. 
          iv.In case of mechanical earthwork where the excavation is in ‘’All types of soil’’ the Engineer will enter the reduced level at the classification of rock requiring blasting
           v.In case of banks made up from cutting spoil, measurements of leads will be taken where necessary from the centre of gravity of the embankment mass, by using a mass diagram. However Mass diagram may not be prepared in case of mechanical earthwork where free lead in up to 1.0 km. and all lifts are included.
          vi.The quantity of work done will be arrived at from cross section measurements of banks. In the case of such measurement, all bridge structures, openings and other gaps and quantities are to be deducted in full as existing at the time of final measurement.
         vii.Rates for earthwork is inclusive of jungle of clearing, dressing and maintenance, and is also inclusive all plant and tools, maintenance of level pegs, construction of approach ramp, making berms, dressing of slopes, maintenance of earthwork through monsoon, stacking of released boulders from cuttings, construction of temporary approaches for execution of earthwork.
        viii.(j) Side drains in cuttings below formation level and catch water drains above cuttings will be paid for by measurement at the rates shown in the Schedule for excavation in cuttings.

Cross Section of formation width for bank for concrete sleeper track on BG for double line
Cross Section of formation width for Cutting for concrete sleeper track on BG for double line
Q.8.- Describe briefly the main features of any two of the following -   
i)    Measurement of tension in LWR by pull up method.
ii)   High speed End unloading Rake with ball bearing rollers.
iii)  52 kg – 60 kg transition SEJ.
iv) Special Diamond Crossing with full speed on main line.
Q.9.- Attempt any two of the following -                             
a)  Describe briefly the various maintenance schedules of tie tamping machine. Also describe the stipulated output of different type of tie tamping machines.
b)  Draw a neat diagram of a three line station on a single line section.
c)  Describe briefly the terms: MMD 1929. ‘X’ class loco profile condo nation of infringements.
Ans.-
( a ) Various maintenance schedules of tie tamping machine -
The following maintenance schedules for all system and sub assemblies of the tie tamping machines are suggested for their working –
Schedule I – After every working day.
Schedule II – After 50 hours of engine working or three weeks which ever is earlier.
Schedule III - After 100 hours of engine working or Six weeks which ever is earlier.
Schedule IV - After 200 hours of engine working or three month which ever is earlier.
Schedule V – Yearly.
Inter POH – After 2000 hours of engine working.
POH – After 4000 hours of engine working or 600 km.
Schedule I to IV should be carried out at site with the help or Mobil workshop and Schedule V should be done either in zonal or in zonal sub centers as convenient. Inter POH should be arranged in zonal centers and POH in Central workshop recently set up at Allahabad.
Output of machines –
Name of machine
Output
Name of machine
Output
Duomatic
1600 Sl / hr.
Tamping Express
2700 Sl / hr.
Universal Tamping machine (UT
450 Sl / hr.
Continuous Action Tamping Machine (CSM)
2000 – 2400 Sl / Hr.
Unomatic
700 Sl / hr.
Unimat
1 T / out per 90 minitues.
Ballast Cleaning Machines – RM 80 & RM 76
550 cum / hr.
Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machines – FRM-80&KSC-600
550 cum / hr.

( b ) Diagram of a three line station on a single line section
Part C
Q.4.- Write short notes on any four of the following -                           
( iii ) Permanent and Temporary speed restriction and Engineering Time Allowance.
       ( iv ) Foundation level .
( vi ) Forging and machining.
Ans.-
( iii ) Permanent and Temporary speed restriction and Engineering Time Allowance -
Temporary Speed restriction –
The Temporary  speed restrictions to be imposed during various sequences of work such as Opening, relaying and initial packing, through packing, Picking up of slacks as required, tamping, Attention to track as required, These consists of :
(a) Caution indicator.
(b) Speed indicator.
(c ) Stop indicator.
(d) Termination indicators ( T/P & T/G).
Permanent speed restriction -
Permanent speed restrictions in force are notified in working time-tables. The speed indicators are erected to indicate to the Drivers the speed restrictions to be observed e.g., between stations, and at stations due to weaker/non standard track/ bridges, restrictions on curves, grades and points and crossings etc.
The indicators to be used are similar to those used for temporary restrictions, namely, caution indicator, speed/stop indicators and termination indicators (T/P&T/G). The details of the indicators and the distance at which they are to be fixed are the same in both the cases
The permanent indicators need not be flood lit at night as in the case of temporary indicators/ signals.
Engineering Allowance -
The Divisional Engineer in consultation with the Operating Department. Where necessary, separate power and crew should be arranged. Provision of Engineering time allowance in the working time table should be arranged with the Traffic Department.

( iv ) Foundation Level –
Foundation Level is the level of bottom most level of Bridge foundation. Foundation is that part of structure which transfer the load from the structure to the soil below. It provides a level base for the superstructure. Foundation include the portion of the structure below the ground level.

( vi ) Forging and machining -

Part B
Q.2.- Answer any Three of the following -                         
( c ) How much DCRG a railway servant is due to receive on superannuation.

Q.8.- Describe briefly the main features of any two of the following -   
v)  Measurement of tension in LWR by pull up method.
vi) High speed End unloading Rake with ball bearing rollers.
vii)52 kg – 60 kg transition SEJ.
viii) Special Diamond Crossing with full speed on main line.
Q.9.- Attempt any two of the following -                             
        ( c ) Describe briefly the terms: MMD 1929. ‘X’ class loco profile condo nation of infringements.