QUESTION WITH ANSWER - AEN GROUP ‘B’ EXAM 2005


L.G.S. EXAMINATION

 CIVIL ENGINEERING 30 -01-2005

Q.1.   ( a )  Explain the salient features covered under Section 3 ( 3 ) in the Official Languages Act. 1963.                                                                                       
            ( b )  Write the correct Hindi terms for the following English Administrative terms.
                      i.        Interim reply may be given.
                     ii.        Discuss with papers.
                    iii.        Keep pending.
                   iv.        Please circulate & file.
                    v.        Immediate action please.                                             
          ( c )  Protection of line in case of ‘STOP DEAD RESTRICTION’ for carrying out a work of short duration on a single line section on a B.G. route – Explain with a sketch giving all the details along with specified distances etc.  


Ans.- ( a )     ®úÉVɦÉɹÉÉ +ÊvÉÊxÉªÉ¨É , 1963 EòÒ EÖò±É 9 vÉÉ®úɪÉå ½éþ * <xɨÉå ºÉä vÉÉ®úÉ 3 ( 3 ) ºÉ¤ÉºÉä ¨É½þi´É{ÉÚhÉÇ ½èþ * <ºÉ vÉÉ®úÉ Eäò +xÉÖºÉÉ®ú EÖòUô EòɨÉEòÉVÉ Ë½þnùÒ +ÆOÉäVÉÒ Êuù¦ÉɹÉÒ °ü{É ¨Éå BEò ºÉÉlÉ VÉÉ®úÒ Eò®úxÉÉ +ÊxÉ´ÉɪÉÇ ½èþ * vÉÉ®úÉ 3 ( 3 ) Eäò +ÆiÉMÉÇiÉ +ÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉä EòɨÉEòÉVÉ EåòpùÒªÉ ºÉ®úEòÉ®ú Eäò ¨ÉÆjÉɱɪÉÉå , ʴɦÉÉMÉÉå , EòɪÉÉDZɪÉÉå , Eåòpù ºÉ®úEòÉ®ú Eäò ÊxɪɨÉÉå , EÆò{ÉÊxɪÉÉå uùÉ®úÉ VÉÉ®úÒ ÊEòªÉä VÉÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ºÉÆEò±{É , ºÉÉvÉÉ®úhÉ +Énäù¶É , ÊxÉªÉ¨É , +ÊvɺÉÚSÉxÉÉBÆ , |ɶÉɺÉÊxÉEò ªÉÉ +xªÉ Ê®ú{ÉÉä]Çõ , |ÉäºÉ Ê´ÉYÉÉÎ{iɪÉÉÆ , ºÉÆÊ´ÉnùÉ , Eò®úÉ®ú , +xÉÖYÉÎ{iÉ , +xÉÖYÉÉ{ÉjÉ , ºÉÚSÉxÉÉBÆ , ÊxÉÊ´ÉnùÉ |É°ü{É ªÉÉ ºÉƺÉnù Eäò ºÉnùxÉÉå ¨Éå ®úJÉÒ VÉÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÒ |ɶÉɺÉÊxÉEò ªÉÉ +xªÉ ®ú{É]åõ ºÉÉlÉ ºÉÉlÉ nùÉäxÉÉå ¦ÉɹÉÉ+Éå ¨Éå VÉÉ®úÒ ÊEòªÉä VÉɪÉäMÉå * BäºÉä EòÉMÉVÉÉiÉ Êuù¦ÉɹÉÒ °ü{É ¨Éå BEò ºÉÉlÉ VÉÉ®úÒ Eò®úxÉä EòÒ ÊVɨ¨ÉänùÉ®úÒ ®úÉVɦÉɹÉÉ +ÊvÉÊxÉªÉ¨É , 1976 Eäò ÊxÉªÉ¨É 6 Eäò +xÉÖºÉÉ®ú =xÉ EòÉMÉVÉÉiÉÉå {É®ú ½þºiÉÉIÉ®ú Eò®úxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ´ªÉÊHò EòÒ ½þÉäMÉÒ *
Ans.- ( b )     ( i ) +xiÉÊ®ú¨É =kÉ®ú ¦ÉäVÉ ÊnùªÉÉ VÉɪÉä . ( 2 ) ºÉ¨¤ÉÎxvÉiÉ EòÉMÉVÉ ±ÉäEò®ú Ê´ÉSÉÉ®ú ʴɨɶÉÇ Eò®åú .            ( 3 ) ÊxÉhÉǪÉÉlÉÇ ®úÉäEò ®úJÉå .        ( 4 )  EÞò{ɪÉÉ {ÉÊ®ú{ÉÊjÉiÉ Eò®åú +Éè®ú ¡òÉ<±É Eò®ú nåù .                    ( 5 ) iÉiEòÉ±É EòɪÉÇ´ÉɽþÒ Eò®.åú.
Ans.- ( c ) Protection in block section and procedure for passing of trains for Works of short duration –
Before commencing any work of such category the Permanent Way Inspector or authorised Railway servant should issue a notice to the Station Master/ Block hut in-charge at each end of the Block section and obtain their acknowledgment. Depending as to whether the train is to be passed after stopping the line should be protected in the following manner :–
         i.     Post a flagman with hand signals at a distance of 30 meters in rear of the place of obstruction, to show stop hand signals.
        ii.     Post a flagman with hand signals and place a banner flag across the track at a distance of 600 meters. The flag man will show stop hand signals
       iii.     Post a flagman with hand signals and detonators at a distance of 1200 meters. The flagman shall fix three detonators on the line 10 meters apart and take stand at a place not less than 45 meters from the three detonators, from where he can obtain a clear view of the approaching train. He will show stop hand signals.
         iv.       The man at the site of obstruction shall give proceed hand signal to indicate to the Driver, when he may resume normal speed after the train has been hand signalled past the obstruction

Q.2.  ( a )   A theodolite was set up at a distance of 150 m from a tower. The angle of elevation to the top of the parapet was 100 8’ while the angle of depression to the foot of the tower was 30 12’. The staff reading on the B.M. of R.L. 50.217 m with the telescope horizontal was 0.880 m. Find –
                              i.        Height of the tower.                                         
                             ii.        The reduced level of the top of parapet wall.  
( Note : Assume sin 100 8’ = 0.1759 & sin 30 12’ = 0.0558 , cos 100 8’ = 0.9844 & cos 30 12’ = 0.9984 )
          ( b )  Explain in detail the various stages of attending to Rail fracture / weld failure in a L.W.R. track in field.      
Ans.-  ( a )  In ABD -     BD                                                                          sin 30 12’            
                                 ----- = tan 30 12’  ,     BD = AB  tan 30 12’  = 150 x ------------    ,
                                  AB                                                                          cos 30 12’          
                                    0.0558
      Y =    BD = 150 x ----------  = 8.38 m.
                                    0.9984  
In ABC  -         CB                                                                        sin 100 8’
                           ----- = tan 100 8’ ,    CB = AB tan 100 8’ , = 150 x -------------   ,
                            AB                                                                         cos 100 8’
                           0.1759
X = CB = 150 x ------------   =  26.80 m.
                           0.9844
Height of the tower = BC + BD = x + y = 26.80 + 8.38 = 35.18 m.
Height of the tower from BM = 35.18 – 0.880 = 34.30 m.
The reduced level of the top of parapet wall = 50.217 + 34.30 = 84.517 m.
         i.     Height of the tower = 35.18 m.
        ii.     The reduced level of the top of parapet wall = 84.517 m.   Ans.
Q.3.   ( a ) Calculate super elevation, maximum permissible speed and transition length for a 3o curve on ‘HIGH SPEED B.G. SECTION’ having maximum sanctioned speed of 110 km/h. Assume the equilibrium speed as 80 km/h and booked speed of goods trains as 50 km/h.                     
(b)     Write short notes on the following items-
i)              DBM system of maintenance
ii)             Single tender system
iii)            Painting schedule for steel bridge girders
iv)           Slump test                                         
Ans.- ( a ) Radius of curve = 1750 / D = 1750 / 3 = 583.3 meters.
            Equilibrium super elevation ( for 80 kmph ) = GV2  / 127 R = 1750 x 802  / 127 x 583.3
                                                                                = 151.2 mm.
            Equilibrium super elevation for max. Sanctioned speed ( for 110 kmph )
                                    = 1750 x 1002  / 127 x 583.3 = 285.8 mm.
            Cant deficiency = 258.8 – 151.2 = 134.6 mm.   This is more than 100 mm permitted Cd.
             With 100 mm cant deficiency, actual cant = 285.8 -100 = 185.8 mm.
            But actual cant is limited to 165 mm and this value therefore will be adopted.
            Equilibrium super elevation for goods train speed ( 50 kmph ) = 1750 x 502  / 127 x 583.3
                                                                                                           = 59 mm.
            Cant excess = Actual cant – 59 mm = 165 -59 = 106 mm.
            Which is excess of 75 mm permitted value. With 75 mm cant excess actual cant now to be provided = 75 + 59 = 134 mm.
            Provided cant 135 mm ( rounding off to higher multiple of 5 mm. )
            Maximum permissible speed on the curve for high speed route
             = [ ( Ca + Cd ) x R ] / 13.76 = [ ( 135 + 100 ) x 583.3 ] / 13.76 = 99.6 kmph
                                                                                                                    Say 100 kmph
            Length of transition is maximum of the following :-
         i.     From consideration of rate of change of cant ( 35 mm / sec. ) L = 0.008 Ca x Vm = 0.008 x 135 x 100 meters. = 108 meters.
        ii.     From consideration of rate of change of cant deficiency ( 35 mm / sec. ) L = 0.008 Cd x Vm = 0.008 x 100  x 100 meters. = 80  meters.
       iii.     From consideration of cant gradient ( 1 in 720 ) L = 0.72 x E = 0.72 x 135 = 97.2 m. 
              Provided transition length of 108 meters.                           
1.        Super elevation to be provided = 135 mm.
2.        Maximum permissible speed over the curve = 100 kmph.
3.        Length of transition curve = 108 meters.                                   Ans.

Ans.- ( b )  ( i ) DBM system of maintenance –
To improve the productivity of staff available for maintenance of colonies and to improve the level of satisfaction of the occupants, it is proposed to introduce Directed Maintenance of Buildings with effect from 01-4-1995 in all Divisions of this Railway.
The directed building maintenance in the section of each AEN should be started as per the order to be decided in consultation with recognised unions. Once a colony is identified for starting the work the work should be taken up from one end of the colony and systematically proceeded towards the other end.
The principle of Directed Maintenance would involve the following steps:-
The Directed Maintenance will be carried out jointly by civil Engg. Electrical Engg. And Medical departments.
Inspection of one or two blocks ( depending upon the size of blocks ) by inspections / supervisors of the three departments a few days in advance and preparation of quarter-wise list of items to be attended.
Calculation of material and man-power required for those blocks will be done by the supervisors. They will maintain the record in a register.
Identification of the order in which various blocks are required to be attended.
On the day of attention full complement of staff requirement and the material to be used are taken from the store to the work site. Work is done by staff of all the three departments under direct supervision of one Inspector / supervisor of each department.
Based upon quantities, the actual execution of work can be done for 1, 2, or 3 days, as per requirement. 
In major colonies , 50 to 60% of the maintenance staff can be put into direct maintenance gang, and the rest of the staff can be left for attending the day-to-day complaints.
In smaller colonies , as number of staff available for maintenance is small they can attend to day-today complaints for 3 days in a week and do directed maintenance for rest of the days.
Directed system of maintenance would also increase the productivity of staff as follows apart improving the conducting of the worst maintained colonies in the section of the AEN.
Time spent by Artisan staff at present to inspect, report back, get the material issued etc. is used.
As all work is done under the supervision of an inspector better quality and quantity of work is achieved.
As three departments are working jointly the instances of work not getting done due to non- receipt of assistance from other departments dose not occur.
For taking assistance from other departments, joint instructions may be issued by Sr. DEN ( Co ) with Sr. DEE and M.S. of the division and with the approval of DRM , where necessary.
In the beginning there may be some difficulty in meeting with day-today complaints will drastically come down and satisfaction of the residents of the colony would increase.
The Assistant and the divisional Officers should closely monitor the system followed by the staff for this maintenance, including timely supply of material and site supervision to ensure its success.
The number of quarters attended by directed Building Maintenance must be reported by each Sr. DEN in their covering letter of MCDO every month.
( ii ) Single Tender –
In case of emergency, the tender can be invited from a single contract provided that he should be from approved list of contractor.
( iii ) Painting schedule for steel bridge girders  -
Girder painting is essentially an application of surface coating to the steel work so as to inhibit corrosion. The basic principle underlying maintenance painting is not to allow deterioration of existing paint film to reach such a stage that rusting starts underneath the paint film.
 The entire steel work of a girder should be painted at regular intervals which may vary from six years in arid zones to one year in highly corrosive areas.
iv ) Slump test :- Slump test is commonly adopted for ordinary concrete works. This test is performed with the help of a vessel of the shape of the frustum of a cone and open at both ends. The top and bottom diameters of the vessel should be 100 mm and 200 mm respectively and it should be 300 mm in height.
The vessel is placed in a flat non-absorbent surface and then filled with specimen concrete mix in four different layers of equal thickness. Each layer is tamped 25 times by the point of a 16 mm dia rod, 60 cm. In length. The strokes are applied uniformly over the entire area with a force that the rod just penetrates the full depth of the layer being compacted . Immediately after the vessel is completely filled, it is raised vertically, care being taken not to disturb the filling. The concrete filling is allowed to subside or settle. The vertical settlement recorded for concrete is known as slump.

Q.4.  ( a )  Position of Engineering indicators in case of Multi speed restrictions on one of the line in a Double line section where the first speed restriction is of less value (say 20km/h) In comparison with the following speed restriction (say 45 km/h) in the direction of traffic movement. Explain with a sketch giving all the details along with specified distances etc.                           
           ( b )  Distinguish between the following –                      
                              i.        Catch siding & Slip siding.
                             ii.        Prestressed concrete & Reinforced cement concrete.
                            iii.        Final modification & Material modification.
Ans.-  ( a )
Multi Speed Restriction (i.e. existence of two or more than two speed restrictions in continuation) :-
 When work of deep screening or sleeper renewal is in progress, there is situation of having two or more than two speed restrictions in continuation. In such situation, placement of speed boards for following speed restriction shall be as under:
         i.     In case of following speed restriction being more restrictive, a minimum of 200m track should be under earlier speed restriction zone. If not, then only one SR board should be provided, considering that the previous speed restriction is at par with the following SR, which is more  restrictive.
        ii.     In case of following speed restriction being less restrictive, corresponding speed indicator board for following speed restriction shall be placed at a distance equal to the length of the longest goods train operating on the section after termination point of previous speed restriction zone.
The details and position of fixing each indicator are detailed in Figure as under.
Position of Engineering Indicators in case of Multi speed restriction in case  Ist speed restriction is (say 20 kmph ) lower in comparison to the 2nd speed restriction ( say 45 kmph ) on one of the line of a double line section in the direction of train movement in a BG section .
Ans.- ( b )  ( i ) - Catch siding & Slip siding -
Catch Sidings
Normally all catch sidings except those which are sanded shall be kept alive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be kept clear of sand for a length of 21.5 metres, beyond the section insulators in the overhead lines and the switches controlling the sanded catch sidings shall be kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine or single or multiple unit train runs into the sanded length of a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated from earth except through the buffers or couplings if connected to other vehicles, therefore these sidings shall not be made alive when an electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupled thereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staff have been moved away from positions where they are likely to make contact between the permanent way formation and any part of the locomotive or single or multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No person shall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other way make contact between the permanent way formation and the electric engine or single or multiple unit train or any vehicles coupled thereto while the overhead equipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.
Slip Siding –
If the Station yard is in a gradient steeper than 1 in 260 or there is a continuous falling gradient away from the station there is a possibility of vehicles standing in the yard entering or escaping into the block section and cause accidents to prevent such escaping of vehicles into the block section slip siding are provided.
At a station where there is a gradient 1 in 100 falling away from the station within 45 meters beyond the outer most points at either end a slip siding should be provided.
As per the schedule of dimensions no station yard should be constructed nor should any siding join a passenger line on a steeper grade than 1 in 260 except where it is unavoidable and then only with the previous sanction of the railway board obtained through the commissioner of Railway safety when a slip siding is made sufficient prevent accident.
( ii ) Prestressed concrete & Reinforced cement concrete -
Prestressed Concrete –
With the introduction of prestressing it has become possible to avoid the formation of cracks in tension concrete and to use high strength steel most economical.
The essence of prestressing a concrete member in the induction of sufficient compressive stress in concrete prior to the member being subjected to loads in the zones, which will be tensile when the loads are applied. Thus when the prestressed concrete member is subjected to external loads. The already induced compressive stress in concrete will neutralize the tensile stress developed in the member on loading. Hence the resultant stresses in concrete in tensile zone will be eliminated altogether or get reduced to a great extent. Thus in a prestressed concrete member the entire cross section of the member becomes effective for resisting bending and at the same time the danger of cracking when the member is loaded is minimized or even avoided.
Reinforced cement concrete –
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension hence plain concrete can only be used where a member is in pure compression. Steel is equally strong in compression and tension but long member can not develop fully strength due to buckling. It is necessary to reinforce the concrete. The reinforced should have following qualities.
  1. There should be good bond.
  2. It should have high tensile strength.
  3. Coefficient of thermal expansion of both should be same.
  4. It should be easily available, easy to cut, bend and place
  5. Concrete should not produce harmful effect on it. Steel satisfies all these requirement and hence used for reinforcing concrete.
( iii ) Final modification & Material modification -
Final Modification :- 
Railway administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant of appropriation . This is done through the submission of modification statements.
The third review is conducted in the month of February every year and is known as final modification. Actual expenditure during first Nine months and approximate expenditure for the Tenth month is reviewed and compared with: -
1.    Budget grant/ revised grant (if received)
2.    Budget proportion.
3.    Actual expenditure during the last financial year.
4.    Actual expenditure during corresponding period of the last financial year.
Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
a)    Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
b)    Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
c)    Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
d)    A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
e)    Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
f)     The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
g)    Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
h)    The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
i)      Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.

Q.5. ( a ) A beam AB 12 m long is simply supported at 2 m & 1 m from A & B respectively. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 300 kg/m and concentrated load of 1500 kg & 2000 kg at A & B respectively. Draw the bending moment and shear force diagram duly indicating the values at critical locations.                          
         ( b ) Explain in detail the need and the system of carrying out ‘GAP SURVEY’ and subsequent adjustment of gaps in SWR track in field.    
Ans.- ( a ) Taking moments about C
RD x 9 = (2000 x 10) + (300 x 10 x 5) – (1500 x 2) – (300 x 2 x 1)
                        = 20000 + 15000 – 3000 - 600  = 35000 – 3600 = 31400
            RD = 31400 / 9 = 3488.89 kg.  
            And RC = ( 2000 + 1500 + 300 x 12 ) – 3488.89 = 7100 – 3488.89 = 3611.11 kg.

Shear Force –

The shear force diagram is drawn in fig. And values are Tabulated hear
FA = + 1500Kg,  FC = +1500 + 600 – 3611.11= + 2100 – 3611.11 = - 1511.11 Kg,
FD = - 1511.11 + 300 x 9 – 3488.89 = - 5000 + 2700 = - 2300 Kg, FB = - 2000 kg.
Bending Moment –
The Bending Moment Diagram is drawn in fig. And the values are tabulated hear
MA = 0 , MC = - (1500 x 2) – ( 300 x 2 x 1 ) = - 3000 – 600 = -3600 kgm ,
MD = - ( 2000 x 1 ) – (300 x 1 x 0.50 ) = - 2000 – 150 = - 2150 kgm.      MB = 0

Maximum Bending Moment –

X / 1511.11 = (9 – x) / 1188.89 , 1188.89 x = 9 x 1511.11 – 1511.11x ,
1188.89 x + 1511.11x = 13599.99 , 2700 x = 13599.99 ,  x = 13599.99 / 2700 = 5.03 m.
MM = - ( 1500 x 7.03 ) + ( 3611 x 5.03 ) – ( 300 x 7.03 x 7.03 / 2 )
       = - 10545 + 18163.88 – 7413.14 = - 17958.14 + 18163.88 = + 205.74 kgm.   

Ans.- ( b ) Gap survey and adjustment of gaps in SWR 
Gap survey and rectification of gaps is to be carried out, in stretches where track develops excessive creep jammed joints, sun kinks, buckling, wide gaps, battered and hogged joints, fractures at joints and bending of bolts etc. In SWR the gap survey and adjustment should normally be done before the end of February once a year (i.e., before onset of Summer).
The gap survey shall be conducted on a clear and sunny day in the cool hours of the day.
The length over which gap survey is to be done should, wherever possible, be divided into suitable sub-sections, each bounded by fixed points such as level crossings, points and crossings etc. The survey should be completed during as short a time as possible, by employing adequate number of parties so that the rail temperature is not likely to vary appreciably.

Q.6.  ( a )  What do you understand by budgetary review and explain the same in detail.   
         ( b )  Explain ‘Standard Measurement books’                                               
         ( c ) Write short notes on the following –
                              i.        Dismissal and Removal from service.
                             ii.        PREM- meeting.
                            iii.        An employee deemed to be placed under suspension.
                           iv.        Trade test.                                                          
Ans.- ( a ) Budgetary Review of Expenditure.-
Railway Administrations should review their expenditure in August to see whether any modifications are necessary in the allotments placed at their disposal.  The review in respect of each grant should be submitted, to the Railway Board in form No. F-383 so as to reach them not later than 1st  September each year.
The administrations should review the position in as much detail as possible at the time, and if there is any new expenditure which was definitely not anticipated in the budget and which cannot be postponed without serious detriment to safety or efficiency, they should examine whether such expenditure can be met by saving in expenditure provided for in the Budget when, such savings can be foreseen or can be achieved without serious damage.  The review should show whether such examination discloses the necessity of additional grants or the possibilities of net savings, in order to enable the Board to set off savings on one railway against excesses on another and to arrive at one estimate of the net additional grant required, if any.
Ans.- ( b ) Standard Measurements Book .—
Detailed measurements may be dispensed with in the case of periodical repairs when the quantities are recorded in efficiently maintained Standard measurement books. In the case of letting out the work of whitewashing of quarters on contract the Railways call group the quarters in Division or Sub-Division Area in such a way that each group includes quarters which would individually entail approximately the same equivalent surface area for whitewashing. The grouping should broadly be such that all the quarters in one group should be susceptible of being given to one contractor for the purpose of whitewashing. Non-standard bungalows of officers may however, be excluded from such grouping. The standard areas of while washing to be paid for in respect of one unit of quarters in each group and the approximate number of units to be whitewashed should be clearly shown in the tender documents. Payments should be made for the number of quarters actually while washed on the basis of such area per unit as indicated in the tender documents.
Ans.- ( c ) ( i ) Dismissal and Removal from service –
Removal from service which shall not be a disqualification for future employment under the Government or Railway Administration.
Dismissal from service which shall ordinarily be a disqualification for future employment under the Government or Railway Administration.
Provided that in cases of persons found guilty of any act or omission which resulted or would have, ordinarily, resulted in collisions of Railway trains, signals at danger, one of the penalties specified shall, ordinarily be imposed and where such penalty is not imposed, the reasons therefore shall be recorded in writing.
Provided further that in case of persons found guilty of having accepted or having obtained from any person any gratification, other than legal remuneration, as a motive or reward for doing or forbearing to do any official act, one of the penalties specified shall ordinarily be imposed and where such penalty is not imposed, the reasons therefore shall be recorded in writing.
( ii )  PREM ( Participation of Railway Employees in Management ) :-
To facilitate meaningful and effective participation of workers in the management process it was decided in March 1994 that the Corporate Enterprise Group at the Board, Zonal and divisional level should be restructured and designated as group for participation of Railway employees in management ( PREM ). Also to make the working of PREM more purposeful a separate cell headed by a joint secretary was set up under the direct control of secretary Railway Board. The joint secretary shall assist the secretary in convening the meeting of the Group periodically and monitor the implementation of various decisions taken. He will also monitor the working of PREM at the Zonal and Divisional levels.
The board objectives of PREM are :-
              i.Evaluate the functioning of the Railways and exchange date and ideas.
             ii.Appraise the investment programs, particularly in regard to housing and other welfare services.
            iii.Identify areas and devise action-oriented methods for maximizing organizational effectiveness, the use of technology and towards building up the image of the Railway as a service organization.
           iv.To facilitate effective and meaningful participation of the railway employees in the management process.             
            v.To give them a sense of involvement and pride in the organisation’s works.
           vi.To discuss and identify the measures for improving the quality of service to the rail passengers and safety operations.
Structure –
              i.At Board level –
At Board’s level the Group shall comprise the Chairman Member of Railway Board, Secretary, railway Board, four representatives each from the two recognized railway men’s federations and two representatives each from the two Railway Officers Federations.
             ii.At Zonal Railway level –
At the Zonal Railway level the Group shall comprise the GM, AGM coordinating heads of the departments, four representatives each from the two recognized Railway man’s Federation and two representatives each from two railway Officers Federations.
            iii.At Divisional Level -
At the Divisional level the Group shall consist of DRM, ADRM, Officers – in – charge of various branches, four representatives each from of the Railway man’s Federation and two representatives each from two railway Officers Federations.
( iii ) An employee deemed to be placed under suspension -
A Railway servant shall be deemed to have been suspended by an order of competent authority in the following cases. The information to this effect should be conveyed to the employee on ( Standard Form No. 2 )
      i.        With effect from the date of his detention, if he is detained in custody whether on criminal charge or other wise for a period exceeding 48 hours.
     ii.        With effect from the date of his conviction if in the event of a conviction for an offence, he is sentenced to term of imprisonment exceeding 48 hours.
( iv ) Trade Test  -
With a view of perform the work in a trade an artisan staff should have the skill required for the trade and for this Railway workers classifications Tribunal in 1948 emphasized that the fairest and the best means of classifying the artisans in skilled and semi skilled in each trade should be through the trade test method.
The trade tests will be arranged by an Assistant officer of the branch concerned. The results of Trade test  should be supervised by an official not below the rank of IOW in charge.
The trade test result with the recommendations of the trade testing officer will be placed through the senior scale office of the branch concerned officer of deputy’s rank who are competent to approve of the trade test Assessments.

Q.2. - ( b )  Explain in detail the various stages of attending to Rail fracture / weld failure in a L.W.R. track in field.      
Ans.- ( b ) Various stages of attending to Rail fracture / weld failure in a L.W.R. track in field - 
Equipment required -
i) Special 1 meter long fishplates with screw clamps and Joggled fishplates with bolted clamps (for fractures at welded joints) .
ii) Steel tape capable of reading up to one mm.
iii) Alumino-thermic welding and finishing equipment.
iv) Equipment for destressing.
v) 6.5 meter long sawn rail cut piece of the same section as LWR duly tested by USFD.
vi) Rail closures of suitable lengths.
vii) Equipment for protection of track.
viii) Equipment for night working.
Procedure for repairs -
If any fracture takes place on LWR/CWR, immediate action shall be taken by the official who detected the fracture to suspend the traffic and to protect the line. He shall report the fracture to the Gang mate Key man/PWI, who shall arrange for making emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately. Repairs shall be carried out in four stages as described below
a) Emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately.
b) Temporary repairs.
c) Permanent repairs.
d) Destressing.
Emergency Repairs: - The fractured rails shall be joined by using the arrangements clamps, fish plates. If the gap at fracture does not exceed 30 mm, insertion of any closure rail niece is not necessary. The traffic may then be resumed at a speed of stop dead and 10 kmph for the first train and 20 km/h for subsequent trains.
Temporary Repairs :-
If a welding party is not readily available, the fracture shall be repaired by using a cut-rail (not less than 4 meter long) and clamped/bolted.                           
i) A traffic block shall be taken as soon as possible preferably when the rail temperature is within the range specified for td.       
ii) (a) Two points on either side of the fracture shall be marked on the rail such that the length of closure rail (not less than 4 meters) to be inserted is equal to the total length of the rail pieces removed from the track minus allowances for two welds and saw cut (normally 51 mm).
(b) Alternately two points on either side of the fracture shall be marked on the rail at a distance equal to the length of the available closure rail. The length of closure rail should not become less than 4 meters at the time of permanent repairs.
iii) The rails shall then be cut through at these points simultaneously, if possible. The closure rail shall then be inserted joined After joining the traffic shall then be resumed at restricted speed. In case closure rail inserted one of the joints may have to be provided with closure piece of adequate width and joined by one meter fishplate and clamps.
Permanent Repairs :-
(i) If the fracture is such that, wide gap A T welding ban be adopted, then the total length of fractured ends to-be cut shall be equal to the gap required for wide gap welding. Once the two ends are cut, a gap required for wide gap welding will be created by using rail tensors and joint welded by wide-gap Alumino Thermit welding technique.
ii) In case rail closure Temporary Repairs ( ii ) ( a ) has been provided for temporary repairs one joint of the closure rail shall be welded without rail tenser after setting correct gap for welding. However to ensure correct gap during welding of the other joint, tensor shall be used.
iii) In case rail closure as per Temporary Repairs (ii) (b) has been provided at the time of temporary repairs, the rail closure shall be suitably cut such that the length of the rail to be final inserted in track is equal to length of rail remove from track after fracture minus allowances for two welds i.e. 50 mm. Once the closure rail is cut, the closure rail will be welded.
iv) After welding of joints, a length of track equal to breathing length or about 125 meters on either side be unfastened and tapped to ensure equalisation of stress and then refastened.

Q.7.  ( a ) Explain so as to what do you understand by ‘Break in Service’ due to strike and how they are settled one way or the other finally.            
         ( b )  What do you understand by ‘revising Authority’ in DAR cases and what are his power? What procedure needs to be followed by ‘Revising authority’ in case he decides to enhance the penalty imposed to a Railway servant in a DAR case.  
         ( c )  Write short notes on the following –
                              i.        Operating Ratio.
                             ii.        Liability register.
                            iii.        Deposit Works.
                           iv.        Audit Paras.                                                 
Ans.
( a ) Breaks in service –
A break in the service of a subscriber shall, unless condoned under the provision of this rule, entail forfeiture of his service before the break for the purpose of calculating the special contribution admissible under rule 915:  Provided that-  interval between relinquishing appointment on one railway and joining another shall not constitute a break, if the condition laid down in rule 918 have been observed, and  participation in a strike, other than a strike declared to be illegal under any law, does not constitute a break in service for the purpose of this rule.
The President may condone any break or deficiency in the service of a subscriber for the purpose of these rules.
In the case of a Group A or Group B railway servant, the Railway Board, and in the case of Group C or Group D railway servant, the controlling officer, or when the break does not exceed twelve months in all, a head of department or a Divisional Railway Manager may condone break in service, the period being rated as dies non:  Provided that-  the break was not due to dismissal or to participation in a strike declared to be illegal under any law for the time being in force,  the break was due to resignation by the subscriber in circumstances beyond his control, or  when the break was between one period of temporary service and another or between temporary service and permanent service, the total service, permanent and temporary, rendered or likely to be rendered up to the date of superannuation, by the subscriber is not less than thirty years:

( b ) Revising authority -  Revising authority is the authority not below the rank of Deputy Head of Department in the case of a Railway Servant serving under his control.
Revising authority unless it is higher than the appellate authority where an appeal has been preferred or where no appeal has been preferred and the time limit laid down for revision by the appellate authority, has expired after more than six months from the date of the order to be revised.  
Provided that when revision is undertaken by the Railway Board or the General Manager of a Zonal Railway or an authority of the status of a General Manager in any other Railway Unit or Administration when they are higher than the appellate authority, and by the President even when he is the appellate authority, this can be done without restriction of any time limit.
For the purposes of this sub-rule the time limits for revision of cases shall be reckoned from the date of issue of the orders proposed to be revised. In cases where original order has been upheld by the appellate authority, the time limit shall be reckoned from the date of issue of the appellate orders.
The President may at any time either on his own motion or otherwise review any orders passed under these rules when any new material or evidence which could not be produced or was not available at the time of passing the order under review and which has the effect of changing the nature of the case has come or has been brought to his notice.
Provided that no order imposing or enhancing any penalty shall be made by the President unless the Railway servant concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of making a representation against the penalty proposed or where it is proposed to impose any of the major penalties specified in Rule 6 or to enhance the minor penalty imposed by the order sought to be reviewed to any of the major penalties and if an enquiry under Rule 9 has not already been held in the case, no such penalty shall be imposed except after inquiring in the manner laid down in Rule 9, subject to the provisions of Rule 14 and except after consultation with the Commission where such consultation is necessary.

( c ) ( i ) Operating Ratio –
Operating Ratio is the ratio which the total working expenses excluding suspense of a Railway bear to its gross earning or in other words represents the percentage of working expenses in this connection include appropriation to DRF and Pension fund as well. This is used to measure the efficiency of the railway.
 ( iii ) Deposit Works.-
The term Deposit Work is applied to works of construction or repair the cost of which is met not out of Railway revenues but out of funds from non railway a source works carried out by the railway for other Government department municipalities and other local bodies and private firms and individuals are known as deposit works.
The cost of plans and estimated are required to be deposited by private persons and local bodied etc before the detailed plans and estimated are prepared charges at siding scales are recovered from these deposits if works are not subsequently carried out keeping in view the charges may be decided by the competent authority.
( iv ) Audit Paras –
The comptroller and Auditor General of India is the highest authority on Audit in India . He is responsible for the audit of the accounts of the Indian Railways. For this purpose he is assisted Additional Deputy Comptroller and Audit general ( Railways ) under whom Directors of Audit on each railway are posted. Under Directors of Audit Officers are provided on each division for discharging their duties.
Main object of Audit is to ensure that –
  1. The system of accounts used by the internal check authority is correct.
  2. The method of check applied at every stage of accounts is sufficient.
  3. That the accounts are maintained and the checks applied with due accuracy.
  4. Arrangements  exist in the accounts officers to ensure attention to the financial interests of the Railways on the part of all concerned.
These checks are carried out by a percentage check method to the vouchers and connected accounts and records of the accounts office and by spot inspection of initial records and documents of the office where the transactions originate.
The following are different kinds of the Audit communications –
1.    Factual statement and Draft Paras.
2.    Special audit letters.
3.    Audit inspection reports – Part I & II.
4.    Rough Audit Notes. 

Q.8.  ( a )  What do you understand by ‘Late & Delayed’ tenders and how they will have to be dealt as per rule.                                                     
         ( b )  Variation in quantity during the execution of work – how they are to be dealt with as per rule.                                                                
         ( c )  What do you understand by ‘Supernumerary Posts’ and under what circumstances such posts are created.                            
         ( d )  Explain the term ‘Declaration under Service Conduct Rules’.   
Ans.-
( a ) Late & Delayed’ tenders -
Late Tenders – Are the tenders received after the opening of tenders such tenders should not be considered. However GM in consultation with FA and CAO may accept such tenders in exceptional cases where GM is satisfied that such decision is necessary in absence of adequate competition.
Delayed tenders – Are the tender which are received after the notified closing time but before the schedule time of opening of the tenders. Such tenders should not be considered. However in special circumstances if response through others tenders received in time is not adequate and it is established that delayed tender is benefited in the sense that no undue advantage will occur through such consideration delayed  tenders can be considered in consultation with Accounts department.

( b ) Variation statement in contracts -
The Engineer on behalf of the Railway shall be entitled by order in writing to enlarge or extend, diminish or reduce the works or make any alterations in their design, character position, site, quantities, dimensions or in the method of their execution or in the combination and use of materials for the execution thereof or to order any additional work to be done or any works not to be done and the contractor will not be entitled to any compensation for any increase/reduction in the quantities of work but will be paid only for the actual amount of work done and for approved materials supplied against a specific order.
Unless otherwise specified in the special conditions of the contract, the accepted variation in quantity of each individual item of the contract would be up to 25% of the quantity originally contracted, except in case of foundation work. The contractor shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates and shall not be entitled to any claim or any compensation whatsoever up to the limit of 25% variation in quantity of individual item of works.
In case of earthwork, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of earth work and variation in the quantities of individual classifications of soil shall not be subject to this limit. In case of foundation work, no variation limit shall apply and the work shall be carried out by the contractor on agreed rates irrespective of any variation.
In case of Zonal work the limit of 20 % variation in quantity of individual item of works and 25% variation on work order subject to not exceed from maximum limit of work order cost 1 lack. 
Variation in Contract Quantities are as under -                              
Up to + 25% of Agr. Value: Same Rates
> + 25% and up to + 40% : 2% reduction in rates
> + 40% and up to + 50% : Additional 2% reduction
Execution of quantities beyond + 50% of overall Agreement Value to be done through fresh tender or by negotiating rates with existing contractor.
If variation is beyond –25% of C.V. negotiation is not required to be done
Include regulatory mechanism (for variations) in contract itself.
 ( c ) Supernumerary Posts.—Supernumerary posts are permanent posts created under special circumstances for operation for a limited period as such at the discretion of the competent authority to create the posts in the administrative convenience.
While it is obviously not possible to give an exhaustive list of the circumstances in which supernumerary posts may be created, the following broad principles governing the creation of such posts may be indicated.
  1. A supernumerary post is normally created to accommodate the lien of an officer.
  2. It is shadow post i.e. , no duties are attached to such posts. The officer, whose lien is maintained against such a post, generally performs duties in some other vacant temporary or permanent posts.
  3. It can be created only if another vacant permanent or temporary post is available to provide work for the person, whose lien is retained by the creation of the supernumerary post.
  4. It is always a permanent post. Since, however, it is a post created for accommodating a permanent officer till he is absorbed in a regular permanent post.
  5. It is personal to the officer for whom it is created and no other officer can be appointed against such a post. It stands abolished as soon as the officer for whom it was created vacates it on account of retirement or confirmation in another regular permanent post or for any other reason. No extra financial commitment is involved in the creation of such posts in the shape of increased pay and allowances, pensionary benefits etc.
     
( ii ) Liability register –
Liability Register is a manuscript register maintained for the purpose of bringing out the unliquidated liabilities pertaining to each work on a given date.
It is maintains in the Executive Engineer’s office of each district or division showing the particulars –
            i.Approximate amount of liabilities incurred.
           ii.Liabilities liquidated from time to time.
          iii.Approximate unliquidated liabilities pertaining to each work.
The resister helps in the preparation of completion Reports of works and it is particular watched that the accounts of works are closed after taking into account all the outstanding liabilities.
L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING15-5-2005
1.   Draw labeled free hand sketch plan and X section for inturning and jacketing of 6.1 m arch bridge. Also write briefly the important steps of execution. ( Height of abutment 5 m, depth of foundation 1 m, foundation strata – rock.)          
Ans.-
Jacketing should be undertaken only when the existing structure is fairly sound and does not show signs of distress. All cracks should be thoroughly grouted before providing the jacket. For the jacketing to be effective, it has to be taken right up to the foundation and integrated at this level with the existing foundation.The foundation shall be exposed for only limited width at a time and for the shortest time necessary for strengthening so as to avoid endangering the safety of the structure. Site and soil conditions including water table shall be considered for deciding the width of foundation to be exposed at a time.
The face of the existing masonry or the concrete should be thoroughly cleaned free of all dirt. Before laying new concrete, neat cement slurry should be applied uniformly over the face of the old masonry. Dowel bars consist of M.S. rods 20 mm dia hooked at the exposed end. M.S. tie bar flats with the ends split can also be similarly fixed into the old masonry. These dowels should be taken down to a depth of not less than 200 mm inside the masonry . For driving of dowels many times holes are required to be made. These holes must be drilled and not made by pavement breakers. The spacing of the dowels should not be more than 450 mm horizontally and vertically. The dowels should be staggered. The new concrete layer should be of minimum cube strength of 250 kg per sq.cm at 28 days. A mat of steel reinforcement bars spaced at minimum 200 mm horizontally and vertically may be provided as distribution reinforcement. The concrete should be cured for a minimum period of 28 days by covering with gunny bags or similar material and splashing with water.
2.   Write short notes on any two of the following -                            
                              i.        Distressed bridge & vulnerable Bridge.
                             ii.        Painting of Girder Bridges.
                            iii.        Numerical rating of Bridges.
Ans.-
( I ) Distressed bridge & vulnerable Bridge -
Distressed bridge -
A distressed bridge is one which  shows any physical sign of deterioration of its physical condition, indicating  the need for rehabilitation through special repairs, strengthening or rebuilding (including replacement of girders
N.B. This definition does not include those bridges considered vulnerable due to hydrological factors.
Vulnerable Bridges –
Those bridges where conditions unsafe for the passage of trains are apprehended and there is need for stopping of trains in time in case such conditions develop called Vulnerable Bridges such as -
              i.     Bridges, having inadequate water-way, liable to scour in foundations, oblique/ parallel flow of water to the approaches, rise of flood above danger level frequently.
             ii.     Bridges located across river courses fed by Railway affecting tanks.
( ii ) Painting of Girder Bridges -
Protective Coatings by painting –
1. Correct surface preparation of the steel to receive the paint:
a) The minimum requirements of a surface prepared for painting are:
i) It should be clean, dry and free from contaminants.
ii) It should be rough enough to ensure adhesion of the paint film.
b) Any one or a combination of the following methods –
i) Manual hand cleaning . ii) Cleaning with power driven tools . iii) Blast cleaning. iv) Flame cleaning. v) washed with lukewarm water.  vi) Temporary coatings. 
Choice of suitable paints :-
The following system of paints may be adopted for painting of Bridge girders :
a) In areas where there is no severe corrosion -
i) Priming coat : One heavy coat of ready-mixed paint red lead priming to IS : 102
ii) Finishing coat :
Two cover coats of red oxide paint to IS : 123 or any other approved paint applied over the primer coats.
b) In areas where corrosion is severe -
i) Priming Coat :Two coats of ready mixed paint red lead Priming to IS : 102
ii) Finishing coat :Two coats of aluminium paint to IS : 2339.
c) In case where the priming coat is in good condition the steel work is painted with two coats of ready mixed red oxide paint to IS : 123.                     
Conditions for obtaining good painting : -
a) Painting should be done in dry and reasonably warm conditions.
b) Painting at night and in the early hours of morning should be avoided.
c) Painting should be avoided during rainy season.
d) Control of paint film thickness.
Periodical through painting : - The entire steel work of a girder should be painted at regular intervals which may vary from six years in arid zones to one year in highly corrosive areas
( iii ) Numerical rating of Bridges  -
In the numerical rating system, the condition of a bridge is represented by a number consisting eight digits. This eight digit number is called as unique rating number ( URN ).
In this eight digit URN, the first digit describes the over all condition of the bridge and this number is known as over all rating number ( ORN ).
The remaining seven digits are known as condition rating number ( CRN ) and these describes the physical condition of the different components of the bridges.
Digit
Part of the Bridge which is described by the digit.
Ist
Over all condition of the bridge.
Iind
Condition of the Foundation & Flooring.
IIIrd
Condition of the Masonry / concrete sub- structure.
Ivth
Condition of the Bed training / Protective works.
Vth
Condition of the Bed Block.
Vith
Condition of the Bearing & expansion arrangement.
VIIth
Condition of the super structure – girder / slab / arch / pipe etc.
VIIIth
Condition of the track structure.
Condition Rating Number
A Condition which warrants rebuilding / re-habilitation immediately.
A Condition which requires rebuilding / re-habilitation on program basis.
A Condition which requires major / special repairs.
A Condition which requires routine maintenance.
Sound Condition.
Not applicable.
Not inspected.
Over all rating number will be lowest CRN given to a Bridge except 0.
Numerical code given to a bridge helps in identifying the progressive deterioration in the bridge.
NRS is convenient for storage of the date in the computer.
NRS is not in any way linked to the load carrying capacity of the bridge.
3.   Write short notes on any two of the following -                            
                              i.        Loss of camber in steel girders.
                             ii.        Types of bridge bearings.
                            iii.        Replacement of loose rivets.
Ans.-
( I ) Loss of camber in steel girders -
Steel triangulated (open web) girders are provided with camber to compensate for deflection under load. Out of the total design camber, the part corresponding to dead load is called dead load camber. The balance is called live load camber which should be available as visible and measurable camber in the girder when not carrying load.
Loss of camber can be mainly attributed to :
a) Overstressing of members beyond the elastic limit
b) Overstressing of joint rivets
c) Loose rivets
( ii ) Types of bearings : -
The bearing transfers the forces coming from the superstructure to the substructure. It also allows for necessary movements in the superstructure which are caused by temperature variations. The following types of bearings are generally used.
a) Sliding bearing - permitting rotation and translation
b) Rocker and roller bearings  - permitting rotation and translation respectively.
c) Elastomeric bearings - Made of natural or synthetic rubber of shore hardness of approximately 50 to 70. They are very stiff in resisting volume change but are very flexible when subjected to shear. They are generally reinforced with steel plates in alternate layers to reduce bulging. When used with a steel or concrete girder these permit moderate longitudinal movements and small rotations at the ends. These are provided for bridges having RCC or Pre stressed girders and can take deflection a well as movement
d) P.T.F.E. Bearings - The PTFE can be unfilled or filled with glass fibre or other reinforcing material. These are used either to provide rotation by sliding over cylindrical or spherical surfaces or to provide horizontal sliding movement over flat surface or a combination of both. Where there are large displacements accompanied with relatively small loadings, as in case of centrifugal loads, wind loads or seismic loads, PTFE sliding bearings are utilised.
( iii ) Replacement of loose rivets-
i) Slight slackness of rivet does not cause loss of rivet strength.
ii) Renewal of slack rivets should be done only when the slack rivets are in groups or are bunched up.
iii) Rivet is to be considered finger loose when the looseness can be felt by        touch, without tapping. Rivets should be considered hammer loose, when the looseness can be felt only with the aid of a hand hammer.
iv) All rivet renewals in a bridge girder shall be done only with pneumatic rivetting. The following points should be kept in mind while carrying out the rivetting work.
a) In pneumatic rivetting, the driving of the rivet, filling of the hole and formations of the head should be done by snap mounted pneumatic hammer by delivering quick hard blows on practically white hot rivet.
b) The rivet shank should be about 1.5mm less than the diameter of the drilled hole.
c) While rivetting a loose joint, not more than 10% rivets should be cut at a time.
d) It is preferable to drill a rivet out than to use a rivet buster as the latter cuts the rivet head in shear, imparting very heavy shock to the adjoining group of rivets.
e) The loose rivets in a joint are replaced, it is very necessary that all the rivets in the assembly are rechecked for tightness.
f) At locations where replacing rivets is difficult, turned bolts of appropriate diameter and length may be used.
g) The rivet must be driven straight, while hot, keeping the hammer coaxial.
h) Rivets conforming to IRS specifications only should be used.

4.   Write short notes on any two of the following -                          
                              i.        License fee and way leave charges for Railway land.
                             ii.        Minimum essential amenity and desirable amenity.
                            iii.        Powers of recording measurement in M.B.
Ans.- ( I ) License fee and way leave charges for Railway land –
license fee for railway land -
License fee for Railway land licensed to private parties, a return of six per cent on the market value of the land as assessed by the local revenue. authorities should be treated as "standard rent". But in actual licensing out, Railway Administration should aim at obtaining the best possible rent. They may accept in individual cases, variation from "standard rent" on merits and for good and sufficient reasons. The minimum rent in such cases should be Rs. 100/- per annum.
Way leave charge –
If no other means of access to properties/ houses adjoining railway land are available way leave facility may be granted by railways for the following-
 i.        Pathway( 1.00 m. vide ) across railway line – One time recovery of Rs. 6400/-.
ii.        Water pipe line Xing for agriculture – One time recovery of 12800 /-.
iii.        Electric line for private party –  One time recovery of 12800 /-.
iv.        Electric line for Government agencies- One time recovery of 12800 /-.
v.        Water / Sewage line up to 300 mm dial.- One time recovery of 12800 /-.
In the above cases Agreement for 35 Yrs and renewal after every 35 yeas.
vi.        Passage ( 1.00 m to 3.00 m ) for vehicles scooters etc for private parties – 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 5000 P.a.
vii.        Passage ( 1.00 m to 3.00 m ) for Government bodies - 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
viii.        Under ground Water / Sewage line above 300 mm dial.-    6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
ix.        Under ground / over head electrical Xings not covered under 3 above and other for cable / OFC - 6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
x.        Open drain and over ground water / sewage / gas / oil pipe lines for private or Government bodies – 10% of market values subject to minimum of Rs 20000/-.
xi.        Under ground oil / gas pipe lines -  10% of market values subject to minimum of Rs 20000/-.
xii.        Optical fiber cable crossing ( width not more than 0.50 m. )  -6% of market value of land P.a. subject to a minimum of Rs 10000 P.a.
It should be noted that these charges are only for way leave facility , this should not be treated as license fee.

( ii ) Minimum essential amenity and desirable amenity -
Minimum essential amenities –
When a station is constructed certain minimum amenities are required to be provided at each category of station on the basis of projected traffic earnings. These were earlier termed as basic amenities / infrastructural facilities and will now be called Minimum essential amenities.
Minimum essential amenities and norms for quantum of Minimum essential amenities required to be provided in each category of station are prescribed and listed will have to be ensured.
The Minimum Essential Amenities required in each category of station shall be as Booking facility, Drinking water-Piped / Hand Pump, Waiting Hall, Seating Arrangement, Platform Shelter, Shady trees, Urinals, Latrines, Platforms, Lighting & Fans only at electrified stations, Foot over bridge, Time Table display, Clock, Water cooler, Public Address system / computer based announcement, Parking-cum-circulatory area with light, Electronic Train indicator Board, Public phone booth, Signage ( Standardised ) etc.
Desirable Level of amenities -
Desirable amenities are those which are considered desirable to further improve customer satisfaction and interface process at the station.  The quantum of these amenities would depend upon the category of the station. 
Desirable Amenities is given as Retiring room, Waiting Room, Cloak room, Enquiry Counter, NTES, I.V.R.S., Public Address system / computer based announcement, Book stalls/other stalls of essential goods, Refreshment room, Parking/Circulatory area with lights, Washable apron with jet cleaning, Electronic train indicator Board, Public phone booth, Touch Screen Enquiry system, Water vending machines, Water coolers, Signage ( Standardised ), Modular Catering Stalls., Automatic Vending Machines, Pay & use Toilets on platforms & Circulating area. UTS, Computerisation complaint, Provision of ATMs ( preferably with ticketing facility).
Following amenities required on A1 Category - Provision of cyber cafes, Provision of at least one AC VIP Lounge, Food Plaza, Train coach indication system, CCTV for announcement and security purpose, Coin operated Ticket vending machine, Pre Paid Taxi service, Static mobile charging facility, Facelift of station building including façade.
( iii ) Powers of recording measurement in M.B -
On the open line organisation of the Railways the following powers can be exercised in recording measurements:-
  1. Inspectors of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors in Gr. (Rs. 1600-2660) and Gr.  (Rs. 2000-3200), can. record all measurements including ballast measurements subject to the test checks given below, but cannot record earth work sectional measurements unless they aye, specially nominated by the Assistant Engineer on considerations of competency and reliability. A 10% cheek by the, Assistant Engineer is necessary for works costing up to Rs. 25,000/-, if the value of the work exceeds the estimated cost by more than 10% and for works costing above Rs. 25,000/- a 20% check by Assistant Engineer, is necessary. In the case of ballast and pitching stones measurements a 100% check on quantity and quantity by the Assistant engineer is necessary. The Check of the Assistant Engineer in respect of earth work sectional measurements may be done at his discretion. Those Inspectors in Gr. (Rs. 2000-3200) may finalize measurements for work up to Rs. 10,000/- even when the total value of the works exceeds the estimated value by more than 10%.
  2. Inspector of Works and Permanent Way Inspectors in Grade (Rs. 1400-2300) when they holds independent charge, can record measurements for works costing up to Rs. 25,000/- each, subject to a test check of 20% by the Assistant Engineer.
  3. Sub-Overseers,-Mistries having a diploma in Engineering and having more than three years of service and those not having a diploma in Engineering, but having six years experience to be nominated by name by the Divisional Engineer can record measurements of works up to Rs. 10,000/-, subject to a test cheek of 20% by the Inspector of Works.
5.   a)  Write the specifications of earth work in embankment briefly.
      b)  Write specifications of machine crushed ballast briefly.
Ans.- ( a ) Specifications of earth work in embankment -
Borrow pits -  (a) Borrow pits must not be dug close to telegraph poles, electric poles, level crossings, bridges a culverts, or within 800 metres of the boundary of an inhabited area.
 (b) In banks over 3 metres high, the outer halves only of the borrow pits are to be marked out. Berm - A berm 6 metres wide is to be left untouched initially at every 60 metres.
Earth Bunds - Before the commencement of the monsoon, continuous longitudinal earth bunds 25 cm in height and 40 cm wide on the top, with side slope 2  to 1 are to be made on outer edges of the top of embankments.
Large clods to be broken up - All large clods shall be broken up in the borrow pits or bank.  Banks to be thrown up in Layers - All banks shall be broken up in successive layers of not more than 30 cm in depth over the whole width between the toes of the slopes.
Compaction in Railway Embankments - 
Swelling and shrinkage of soils during wet and dry seasons respectively  because physiochemical properties of a soil do not get altered by compaction.
Side slope - Suitable for  sandy or silty soils  with moderate cohesion.  With the moderate cohesion, the compaction in layers by rollers is most effective.  Vibratory rollers have been found more effective than the static rollers and greater thickness of layers can be allowed.
For having preliminary idea of the type of rolling equipment and number of passes required to achieve the best results. 
Compaction of Clays. - Main objective of compacting predominantly clayey soils is to achieve a uniform mass of soil with no voids between the chunks of clays. Sheep-foot rollers are most effective in breaking the clods and filling large spaces. The layer thickness should be equal to the depth of the feet of roller plus 50 mm.  
Compaction of Cohesionless Soil. - The effective method of compacting cohesionless soil is the use of vibratory compaction.  .
Side slopes in carried up simultaneously - Side slopes shall be carried op simultaneously with the rest of the work and not filled in afterwards.
Profile - Profiles for banks shall be set up where every cross section has been taken, and in flat country where there may be no cross sections, at least at every 30 metres on the straight, and every 15 metres on curves with radius sharper than 600 metres.
Allowance for Shrinkage - The allowance for shrinkage or subsidence will be as under :-
For soft or loose rock, laterite, or gravel : 8 cm per metre in height.
For ordinary soil :10 cm per metre in height.
For black cotton soil : 25 cm per metre in height.
sloping at an inclination of 1  in 30  on either side from the centre line and slopes dressed to the required inclination and neatly trimmed.
Banks in Black Cotton Soil - Banks in Black Cotton Soil or of sand, more than 1 metre in height shall, if necessary, is blanketed on top and sides to a depth of at least 30 cm with Moorum or suitable material. 
Benching - No step or bench being less in cross section than 0.6 metre horizontal and 0.5 metre vertical.
Dressing - After completion of earthwork, the slopes shall be neatly dressed to the correct profile and after the monsoon they shall be made up where required.
Turfing - When so specified, the finished and trimmed side slopes of the embankment shall be turfed with turfing material of approved species. 
Payment - In the case of payment made according to truck wagon/hopper measurements, the following deduction shall be made from the actual quantities measured, after completing the loading up to the top of the loading line, before the trucks are allowed to move.
              i.     Earth of all types with clods broken (excluding moorum & black cotton soil) - 16%
             ii.     Black Cotton Soil.   -  25%
            iii.     Ashes, pure sand, bajri, fine shingle, gravel, moorum. - 8%
( b ) Specification for Track ballast -
Scope: These specifications will be applicable for stone ballast to be used for all types of sleepers on normal track, turnouts, tunnels and deck slabs etc on all routes
Basic Quality:  Ballast should be hard durable and as far as possible angular along edges/corners, free from weathered portions of parent rock, organic impurities and inorganic residues.
Particle Shape: Ballast should be cubical in shape, not be flaky and should have generally flat faces.                                                                                              
Mode of Manufacture:  To ensure uniformity of supply machine crushed ballast should be preferred for broad gauge and metre gauge routes.                            
Physical Prosperities
Ballast sample should satisfy the following physical properties
Aggregate abrasion value –
30% Max  for BG, MG & NG (Planned/sanctioned for conversion)
35% Max for NG&MG(Other than those planned for conversion)
Aggregate Impact Value –
20% Max  for BG, MG & NG (Planned/sanctioned for conversion)
30% Max for NG&MG(Other than those planned for conversion)
Size and Gradation -
Ballast should satisfy the following size and gradation:
Retained on 65mm sq. mesh sieve  - 5% Maximum and Retained 40mm sq.mesh sieve* 40% - 60% for machine crushed ballast only
Under Size Ballast :  The ballast shall be treated as undersize and shall be rejected if –Retention on 40mm Sq. Mesh sieve is less than 40% Retention on 20mm square mesh sieve is less than 98% (for machine crushed)
Stack Measurement: Stacking shall be done on a neat, plain and firm ground with good drainage.  The height of stack shall not be less than 1m except in hilly areas where it may be 0.5m.  Top width of stack shall not be less than 1.0m.  Top of stack shall be kept parallel to the ground plane.  The side slopes of stack should not be flatter than 1.5:1 (Horizontal: Vertical).  Cubical content of each stack shall normally be not less than 30 cum in plain areas and 15 cum in hilly areas.
Wagon Measurement - In case of ballast supply taken by direct loading into wagons, a continues white line should be painted inside the wagon to indicate the level to which ballast should be loaded.  The cubical content in cubic meter corresponding to which line should also be painted on both sides outside the wagon.
Shrinkage Allowance -Payment shall be made for the gross measurement either in stacks or in wagons without any deduction for shrinkage/voids.  However, when ballast supply is made in wagons, shrinkage up to 8% shall be permitted while verifying the quantities at destination.
Sampling and Testing -A minimum of 3 samples of ballast for sieve analysis shall be taken for measurement done on any particular date even if the numbers of stacks to be measured are less than three.
The test viz., determination of Abrasion Value, Impact Value and Water Absorption should be got done through approved laboratories or Railway’s own laboratories
Sample should be collected using a wooden box of internal dimensions 0.3mx0.3mx0.3m from different parts of the stack/wagon.
6.            a)  Draw a free hand sketch of conventional SEJ on concrete sleeper and show the most common location of fracture.                                                    
b)  Write briefly the important precautions to be observed in maintenance of LWR track.
Ans.- ( a )Sketch For conventional SEJ -
Ans.- ( b ) Precautions to be observed in maintenance of LWR track –
Track Structure consisting of other than concrete sleepers in LWR/CWR -
The regular track maintenance in LWR/CWR shall be confined to hours when rail temperature is between td +10°C and td -30°C and shall be completed well before onset of summer. If rail temperature after maintenance operation exceeds td + 20°C during the period of consolidation  the speed restriction of 50 kmph shall be imposed when shoulder and crib compaction has been done and 30 kmph and 20 kmph respectively when shoulder and crib compaction has not been done in addition to posting mobile watchman.
Track structure consisting of concrete sleepers -  
The regular track maintenance in LWR/CWR shall be confined to hours when the rail temperature is between td + 10°C and td -30°C and shall be completed well before onset of summer. If rail temperature after the maintenance operation exceeds td + 20°C during the period of consolidation then the speed restriction of 50 kmph shall be imposed.
Mechanised Maintenance -
i) Maintenance tamping:- Tamping in .LWR/CWR with general lift not exceeding 50 mm in case of concrete sleeper and 25 mm in case of other sleepers.  
ii) Lifting of track:- Lifting where needed, in excess of 50 mm in case of concrete sleepers/25mm in case of other types of sleepers shall be carried out in stages.
iii) Cleaning of shoulder ballast:- Mechanised cleaning of shoulder ballast shall be undertaken when prevailing rail temperatures are within the limits.  
Manual maintenance -
              i.     At no time, not more than 30 sleepers spaces in a continuous stretch shall be opened for manual maintenance.  
             ii.     For correction of alignment, the shoulder ballast shall be opened out to the minimum.
            iii.     In exceptional circumstances when more than 30 sleeper spaces have to be opened for any specific work, like through screening of ballast etc. during the period of the year when minimum daily rail temperature is not below td - 30°C maximum does not go beyond td + 10°C, up to 100 sleeper spaces may be opened under the direct supervision of PWI.
Casual Renewal of Sleepers - Not more than one sleeper in 30 consecutive sleepers shall be replaced at a time.
Renewal of fastenings - The work of-renewal of fastenings shall be carried out when rail temperature is within the limits specified.  
i) Renewal of fastenings not requiring lifting:- Fastenings not requiring lifting of rails, shall be renewed on not more than ' one sleeper at a time.
(ii) Renewal of fastenings requiring lifting:- Fastenings requiring lifting of rails i.e. grooved rubber pads, etc. shall be renewed on not -more than one sleeper at a time.
Maintenance of SEJs/buffer rails -
              i.     Once in a fortnight SEJs shall be checked packed and aligned if necessary. Oiling greasing of tongue and stock rails of SEJ and tightening of fastenings shall be done simultaneously. Movement of SEJs shall be checked and action taken for destressing if necessary.  
             ii.     During his daily patrolling, keyman shall keep special watch on the SEJs falling in his beat.
7. Write short notes on any two of the following –                         
                      i.        Hot weather patrolling.
                     ii.        CTR value of track & CTR of track.
                    iii.        Chamfering of bolt holes.
Ans.- ( I ) Hot weather Patrolling -
Hot weather Patrolling is done for LWR and CWR tracks when the rail temperature reaches td + 200 C and above and td + 140 C for Central Railway.
( ii ) CTR value of track & CTR of track –
CTR value of track -
CTR value shows of Track performance which is calculated on the basis of peaks such as unevenness, Gauge, twist, Alignment which is noticed during Track recording.
CTR value for Rajdhani route will be calculated as under-
CTR value = 100 – ( U + G + T + A )
Where – U = No of peaks exceeding 6 mm in unevenness per Km.
               G = No. of peaks exceeding 3 mm in gauge per Km.
               T = No. of peaks exceeding 5 mm in twist per Km.
               A = No. of peaks exceeding 5 mm in alignment per Km.
As per the new practice the track is being classified in various categories to the CTR values as under –
CTR Value
Classification of Track
CTR Value
Classification of Track
Between 0 & 50
Poor
Between 70 & 80
Very Good
Between 50 & 60
Average
Above 80
Out standing
Between 60 & 70
Good


CTR of track –
Complete Track renewal of track implies renewal of all the components of the track over a particular length. Necessary recoupment of ballast and provision of full ballast cushion is also done along with CTR.
( iii ) Chamfering of rail / Bolt holes –
Chamfering of rail holes has been done for the life of rail hole is increased and chances of the rail hole developing any crack is eliminated.
To operate the equipment chamfering bits are fixed on either side of the hole of the rail with the help of bolt and packing pieces. The torque is set on the torque wrench to a valve of 370 Lbs ft for 52 kg rails. The nut is then tightened progressively till the designed torque is reached and the torque wrench slips. The nut bolt arrangement is then unscrewed and the equipment is back in normal position.
The manufacturer claim that time taken for chamfering the hole is only about 1½ minute.

8.  a)  What do you understand by super-elevation, cant deficiency and cant excess for curves. 
b)  Approximate maximum speed which can be permitted on a 3 degree curve.  
Ans.- ( a )
Super elevation
Equilibrium Cant / Super elevation is the cant for a particular speed at which the amount of centrifugal force dove loped in the curved track exactly balanced.
The Equilibrium Cant is given by the formula -    e = GV2 / 127 R
Where – e = Equilibrium Cant in mm. , G = Gauge in mm. , V = Speed in kmph. ,
               R = Radius of curve in meter.
Cant Deficiency –
Cant Deficiency occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed higher than the equilibrium speed. It is the difference between the theoretical cant required for such higher speed and actual cant provided.
Cant excess –
Cant excess occurs when a train travels around a curve at a speed lower than equilibrium speed. It is the
( b ) Approximate maximum speed on 3 degree curve may be calculate the formula
         e = GV2 / 127 R ,    V = √ 127 R x e / G ,   Where G = Dynamic Gage = 1750 , e = Super elevation which is permissible 165 mm.  R = 1750 / D = 1750 / 3 = 583.33 m.  Say 584 m.
V = √127 x 584 x 165 / 1750 = 83.62 Kmph. Say 80 Kmph.
9.  Describe for any two of the three items listed below the procedure to be followed for maintenance in LWR / CWR track.                          
                              i.        Overhauling of level xing.
                             ii.        Rectification of rail fracture.
                            iii.        Scattered renewals of sleeper.        
Ans.- ( I ) Overhauling of Level xing. -
Each level crossing except those laid with PSC sleepers must be opened out and the condition of sleepers and fittings, rails and fastenings inspected at least once a year or more frequently, as warranted by conditions. However, level crossings laid with PSC sleepers should be overhauled with each cycle of machine packing or more frequently as warranted by conditions and in no case shall opening be delayed by more than two years. In all cases, rails and fastenings in contact with the road shall be thoroughly cleaned with wire brush and a coat of coal tar/anti-corrosive paint applied. Flange way clearances, cross level, gauge and alignment should be checked and corrected as necessary, and the track packed thoroughly before reopening the level crossing for road traffic.
( ii ) Rectification of rail Fractures-                                              
Equipment required - i) Special 1 metre long fishplates with screw clamps and Joggled fishplates with bolted clamps (for fractures at welded joints).
ii) Steel tape capable of reading unto one mm.
iii) Alumino-thermic welding and finishing equipment.      iv) Equipment for destressing.
v) 6.5 metre long sawn rail cut piece of the same section as LWR duly tested by USFD.
vi) Rail closures of suitable lengths.       vii) Equipment for protection of track.
viii) Equipment for night working.
Procedure for repairs - If any fracture takes place on LWR/CWR, immediate action shall be taken by the official who detected the fracture to suspend the traffic and to protect the line. He shall report the fracture to the Gang mate Key man/PWI, who shall arrange for making emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately. Repairs shall be carried out in four stages as described below
a) Emergency repairs to pass the traffic immediately.
b) Temporary repairs.
c) Permanent repairs.
d) Destressing
( iii ) Scattered Renewal of sleeper
 In this case, unserviceable rails, sleepers and fastenings are replaced by identical sections of serviceable and nearly the same vintage track components. These are carried out in isolated locations and not more than 10 rails and/or 250 sleepers in a gang beat in a year. Such renewals are a part of normal maintenance operations.
10.   Draw a neat free hand sketch of channel sleeper, including fixing arrangement of track and girder.                                                                        
Ans.- Sketch of channel sleeper-
11.   Draw Bending moment and Shear Force diagram for a simply supported beam of 6 m span having overhangs of 2 m on either side ( 2 + 6 + 2 m ) with a UDL of 500 kg per meter.
Ans.- Taking moment about A -  
RB x 6 = ( 500 x 8 x 8/2 ) – ( 500 x 2 x 2/2 ) = 16000 –1000 = 15000 kg.  
      RB = 15000 / 6 = 2500 Kg.                    
RA = ( 500 x 10 ) – 2500 = 5000 – 2500 = 2500 Kg.                                             
Shear Force –
The shear force diagram is drawn in fig. And values are Tabulated hear
FD = 0,                 FC = 0,                 FB = - ( 2 x 500 ) + 2500 = - 1000 + 2500 = 1500 kg.           
FA = 1500 – ( 6 x 500 ) + 2500 = 1000 kg.                                     
Bending Moment –
The Bending Moment Diagram is drawn in fig. And the values are tabulated hear
MD = 0 ,    MC = 0 ,   MB =  - 500 x 2 x 2/2 = - 1000 kg.m.    MA = - 500 x 2 x 2/2 = 1000 kg.m.
Maximum Bending Moment – At center
MM = - ( 500 x 5 x 5 / 2 ) + ( 2500 x 3 ) = - 6250 + 7500 = 1250 kg.m.      
12.   Explain the salient features covered under Section 3 ( 3 ) in the Official Languages Act. 1963.                                                                             
Ans.-  see on page 1
13.   Write short notes on any three of the following –
                              i.        SRSF
                             ii.        DRF
                            iii.        RSF
                           iv.        Deposit work.                                   
Ans.-
( ii ) Depreciation Reserve Fund ( DRF ) -
Depreciation Reserve Fund is the fund specially reserved for replacement of assets. Once the assets are purchased from the capital money but after some years the assets become scrap and requires replacement. Every year the life of an asset is reduced and the value is also reduced which is credited to DRF. After scrapping the asset it is replaced by spending money from the DRF the cost is debited to this head and credited to capital.
( iv ) Deposit work -     See on page 14.
14.   Write short notes on any three of the following –  
                              i.        Single Tender.
                             ii.        P.P.E. Act.
                            iii.        Completion Estimate.
                           iv.        On Account Bill and Final Bill.
                            v.        M.A.S. Account.
Ans.-
( I ) Single Tender –  See on Page 4
( ii ) P.P.E. Act :-               
Public Premises eviction Act – It is the act passed by the Parliament for eviction of unauthorised persons from the public premises.
Under this act Railway officers are nominated as estate officer to whom judiciary powers are allotted equal to civil judges.
Any order issued by Estate officer can not be quashed over ruled by other civil court except for appellant purposes.
Under this act action is taken against persons who have un authorisely occupied Government land building or using any fittings etc.
Different Forms used under this Act are as under –
Form No.
Sections & Sub sections of eviction act.
Function
A
Sub sec 1 of sec 4
Issue of notice to show cause against order of eviction.
B
Sub sec 1 of sec 5
Order of eviction after hearing on show cause notice within specified time.
C
Sub sec 1 of sec 6
After waiting 30 days a notice to be issue of giving time limit of 14 days and circulate in one of the local news paper for recovery of the amount by auction.
D
Sub sec 3 of sec 6
Show cause notice for recovery of rent and arrears.
E
Sub sec 1 of sec 7
Order for payment of rent / license fee and arrears.
F
Sub sec 3 of sec 7
Show cause notice for recovery of damages and order for payment of damages as per schedules.
G
Sub sec 2 of sec 7
-  do  -
H
Sub sec 2 of sec 12
Order for asking information on schedule I & II as per section 12.
I
Sub sec 2 of sec 14
Certified and order letter to collector for recovery of amount due a land revenue.
J
Sub sec 2 of sec 13
Notice for recovery from their in case of deceased or defaulter.
( iii ) Completion estimates –
A Completion estimate is prepared in super session of construction estimate. Following particulars are included in the Completion estimates.
                      i.    Amount of sanctioned estimate.
                     ii.    Actual expenditure on all works up to the date of construction estimate.
                    iii.    Commitments on that date.
                   iv.    Anticipated further outlay.
                    v.    Total estimated cost and
                   vi.    Difference between the sanctioned estimate and the estimated cost.
It is prepared on form No E 713.
( iv ) On account Bill & Final Bill :-
On account Bill :- On account Bill  or running bill prepared on Form No. E 1337 is indicated for use in contract works only and not supplies . On account  payments before the completion of a work should be made through this form.
Final Bill :- The final bill prepared on form No. E 1338 should be  used for making final payments . i.e. On closing running accounts for works . Normally only one final bill should be prepared against an agreement or work order . But in cases where groups of annual repair works are included in one agreement or work order there is no objection to more than one final bill being prepared on the completion of each group or certain groups.
( v ) M.A.S. Accounts –
This stands for material at site account. This is a suspense head of account that is maintained to watch actual consumption of materials obtained for specific work such materials stores are requisitioned separately by the executive officer and consigned to the site of work. The monitory value of materials consumed is debited to the work concerned through works Register. The balance under this suspense represents materials on hand yet to be consumed.
15.   Distinguish between any three of the following :  
      i.        Earnest money and Security Deposit.
     ii.        General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract.
    iii.        Revised Estimate and Supplementary Estimate.
   iv.        Final Modification and Material Modification.
    v.        Re-appropriation of funds and Misappropriation of Funds.
Ans.- ( i ) Earnest money and Security Deposit –
Earnest money –
The Tenderer shall be required to deposit Earnest money with the tender for the due performance with the stipulation to keep the offer open till such date as specified in the tender. Earnest money should be either in cash, deposit receipts, pay orders, demand draft.
The earnest money shall be 2% of estimated tender value. The earnest money shall be rounded to the nearest Rs. 10/- . Earnest money shall be applicable for all modes of tendering
Security Deposit –
A Security deposit is taken for the satisfaction of and efficient execution of the work within the agreed time from contractors. Such Security deposit may also be percentage deduction from on accounts bills of contractors called as retention Money usually 10% of the gross amount of bill. The scale of Security Deposit is as under –
  1. Contracts up to one lack in value 10% of the value of contract.
  2. Next one lack in value 7½% of the value of contract.
  3. For 3rd one lack and above in value 5% of the value of contract. Subject to maximum of 10 lacks.
The amount over and above 3 lacks to be recovered from the progressive bills of the contractor at the rate of 10% till it reaches the required value.
 ( ii ) General Conditions of Contract and Special Conditions of Contract -
General Conditions of Contract – Operation of a contract is based upon the various stipulation contained in the General condition of contract. This is in the form of a booklet and forms as essential part of the tender documents and ultimately of the contract documents. It is essential that every body dealing with contract should be aware of the contracts of this booklet. These general conditions are normally applicable to all contracts and can be superseded when special conditions are specially formed and stipulated in the tender documents / agreement.
Special Conditions of Contract – These are the conditions which are not covered in the general conditions of the contract.
The special conditions of contract arise due to the site conditions and the nature of work to be carried out. These conditions are framed by the Executive and the contractor is bound to fulfill the conditions during the execution of specific works and all out general application.
( iii ) Revised Estimate and Supplementary Estimate –
Revised estimates –
Revision of estimates is some times necessary if there is rise in rates of materials, cost of labour, alteration in design etc. If the rise in the cost of work is likely to be more than 10% or Rs. 10,000/- a revised estimates is required to be made. Revised estimates should be prepared in the same degree of detail as the original estimates. The reasons for exceed should clearly explained.
Supplementary estimates –
If it is necessary to do any additional work, after an estimate is sanctioned or if any substantial changes are required to be made Supplementary estimates are made in a similar manner as the detailed estimate. The details of items should include only the extra amount of work needed to be executed.
( iv ) Final Modification and Material Modification -
Final Modification :- 
Railway administration are required to review the budgetary position even after the receipts of revised allotment and advise the position to Railway Board in regard to additional allotment required or surrenders to be made during the current year under each head of grant of appropriation . This is done through the submission of modification statements.
The third review is conducted in the month of February every year and is known as final modification. Actual expenditure during first Nine months and approximate expenditure for the Tenth month is reviewed and compared with: -
1.    Budget grant/ revised grant (if received)
2.    Budget proportion.
3.    Actual expenditure during the last financial year.
4.    Actual expenditure during corresponding period of the last financial year.
Material modification :-
No material modification in a work or scheme as sanctioned should be permitted or under taken with out the prior approval of the authority who sanctioned the estimate . In the case of estimates sanctioned by the Railway Board or higher authority instances of will be considered to be a material modifications of a sanctioned project or work are given in below –
The following may be taken as material modifications on the lines under construction and open line works estimated to cost rupees one crore and over .
  1. Any change in the alignment likely to affect the facilities offered to the public in the neighborhood or likely to increase or decrease the length of the line by over one kilometer.
  2. Introduction of any new station or omission of any station.
  3. Any alteration in the type or number of engines or vehicles provided in an estimate for rolling stock.
  4. A change in the layout of a yard affecting the general method of working or increasing or deducting the number of trains that can be dealt with.
  5. Any departure from the standards of  construction as accepted by the railway board in the Abstract estimate or use of any second new material.
  6. The introduction or omission of any work or facility involving a sum of Rs. 5 Laces and over.
  7. Any modification of a sub work provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an additional out lay on that sub work of more than Rs. 5 laces.
  8. The introduction of any new sub work not provided for in the estimate of a sanctioned work involving an out lay of more than Rs. 5 laces.
  9. Any alteration in the standards of inter locks.
( v ) Re-appropriation of funds and Misappropriation of Funds -
Reappropriation of funds  -   
The transfer of funds originally assigned for expenditure on a specific object to supplement the funds sanctioned for another object is called ‘’ Reappropriation’’.  
Misappropriation Of Fund  -
Misappropriation Of Funds allotted for specific works under capital or Revenue demand but the expenditure is incurred for another work for which there is no competent authority sanction i.e. expenditure is not voted by Parliament, voted by Parliament but not Reappropriated by the competent authority. Misappropriation Of Fund is a major irregularity in financial point of view and may invite accounts as well as audit objections.
16.   Describe briefly the main features of Hours of Employment regulation.  
Ans. - Hours of Employment Regulation –
The working hours and periodic rest of all railway servants are governed by the Hours of Employment Regulations. The rules regarding temporary exemptions from these Regulations as regards hours of work, periodic rest or the period of rest between the end of one period of duty ( rostered duty ) and the compensation same by payment of overtime allowance and or compensatory rest or off are also contained in these Regulations. Orders issued on these Regulations also give a list of staff who are treated as Excluded from the provisions of limitations of hours of work as well as from the provisions periodic rest and which such staff are not entitled to any overtime payment, instructions having been given in these Regulations to Railways Administrations to see on humanitarian grounds that unreasonable conditions are not imposed on them.
17.   Write short notes on any three of the following –  
      i.        Family Pension.
     ii.        Compassionate appointment.
    iii.        Major Penalty.
   iv.        Staff Benefit Fund.
    v.        Retirement benefits.
Ans.-
( I ) Family Pension –
With effect from 1.1.1964 this pension scheme has been started. In case a railway pensioner or a railway servant dies the family is entitled for monthly pension.
No condition in regard to the length of service, status of the employee is laid down for grant of family pension. But if the employee at the time of his retirement is not eligible for pension the question of family pension does not arise.
The pension is based on the last pay drawn and payable @ 30% of the last pay drawn subject to minimum of Rs.1275 p.m. plus D.A. admissible from time to time . This is called as relief.
No commutation of family pension is allowed.
If the family pensioner is employed she is not eligible for D.A. relief on her pension.
The pensioner may get family pension of his / her spouse.
Family pension is payable to –
  1. Widow or widower for life or till remarriage whichever earlier.
  2. Sons blow 25 years and not earning.
  3. Daughter below 25 years of age and not married and not earning.
  4. Physically handicapped child for life if not earning.
In case of dispute the settlement dues are paid on the basis of the succession certificate issued by the court of law.
In case of blind or mentally retarded son/daughter the family pension is payable through guardian appointed by the court.
( ii ) Compassionate Appointment –
An employee’s son / daughter / near relative may be appointed on compassionate grounds in relaxation of the recruitment rules to a group ‘D’ or Group ‘C’ post.
When an employee dies in service / extension of service but not during re-employment , leaving his family in immediate need of assistance, when there is no other earning member in the family.
When an employee is invalided before attaining the age of 55 years ( 57 years in case of group ‘D’ ) if the department is satisfied that the condition of the family is indigent and is in great distress.
This concession is admissible only to one dependant.
( iii ) Major Penalties :-
1)    Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
2)    Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
3)    Compulsory retirement.
4)    Removal from service.
5)    Dismissal from service.
( iv ) Staff Benefit Fund -
This is a fund intended to afford certain kinds of amenities and benefits to no gazetted staff as well as to gazetted officers of the Railway over and the normal facilities offered by the Railway administration from out of Railway funds direct. This is managed by a committee in which the chairman is an officer not below the rank of a Deputy need of a department nominated by the General Manager one representative elected from the staff.
( v ) Retirement Benefits –
The following are the Retirement Benefits granted to pension able and non-pension able Railway employees at the time of retirement from railway service –
  1. Pension / Family pension in the case of pension able employee.
  2. Employee’s own contribution to P.F. and interest.
  3. Govt. contribution and interest in case of SRPF optees.
  4. Retirement gratuity / Death gratuity.
  5. Deposit link insurance to the member of family.
  6. Group Insurance.
  7. Leave encashment.
  8. Transfer allowance, packing allowances and mileage allowance.
  9. Kit Pass and post retirement Passes.
  10. Medical facilities.
  11. Booking of Holidays.
  12. Recruitment of wards on compassionate grounds.
  13. Retention of Railway accommodation after retirement or death.
  14. Allotment of railway accommodation to wards of retiree or on compassionate ground.
18.   What are the various types of leave that an AXEN / ADEN can possibly get? What are their respective entitlement ? Which of these can be carried forward to the next year ? What is the maximum limit to which the same can be accumulated ?

Ans.- Various types of leave that an AXEN / ADEN can possibly get as indicated below –

              i.     Earned Leave ( APL ) – Thirty days Earned Leave is credited to one’s leave account every year 15 days on 1st Jan. and 15 days on 1st July. Maximum leave that can be accumulated at any time is 300 days. Encashment of un utilized leave up to 300 days is permissible on retirement / death of an employee.
             ii.     Leave on Half Pay – It is earned at the rate of 20 days for each calendar year . Leave on Half pay can be converted in to full pay on medical grounds and also for approved course of study. The leave converted is called Commuted Leave. In case of grant of Commuted Leave twice the amount of such leave is debited against the half pay leave due. Half pay leave credited in 10 days on 1st Jan and 10 days on 1st July on every year. Encashment not permissible.
            iii.     Maternity Leave – It may be granted to female Railway employees for a period of 135 days on full pay provided they do not have more than one child. This is also admissible in case of abortion / miscarriage to the extent of 45 days in the entire service.
           iv.     Paternity Leave – A male Railway servant with less than two living children may be granted Paternity Leave for a period of 15 days during the confinement of his wife.
            v.     Study Leave – Study Leave up to a maximum period 24 months in the entire service may be granted to a Railway servant for undergoing a special course consisting of higher studies or specialized training in a professional or technical subject having a direct and close connection with the sphere of his duties or being capable of widening his mind and improving his ability as a railway servant.
           vi.     Casual Leave – casual leave is not a recognized form of leave. It can not be combined  with any other kind of leave. Holidays, Sundays falling within the spell of casual leave do not count as casual leave. The staff who are not permitted to enjoy all holidays are entitled to 11 days casual leave. Casual leave if not availed during a calendar year will lapse.

L.G.S. EXAMINATION – CIVIL ENGINEERING29-5-2005

1.  Explain briefly the precautions to be taken during maintenance to control fractures of rail, welds and fish plated zone.                     
Ans.- Precautions to reduce rail fracture in fish plated zone -                           
  1. Since about 70% of the fractures occur in fish plated zone intensive visual examination of rail ends should be carried out with the help of magnifying glass while lubricating rail ends. Mate & Key man who direct rail end cracks at the time of lubrication should be promptly rewarded while those in whose beat end fractures are detected suitably taken up.
  2. As large number of rail fractures  start accruing from October on wards lubrication of rail ends should preferably be commenced from Ist September every year instead of Ist October so as to complete visual examination of rail ends prior to on set of winter.
  3. Creep and gap adjustments wherever necessary should be done in advance of lubrication of rail ends.
  4. End cropping and welding of rail ends which are prone to fractures should be done.
2.  Draw a labeled free hand sketch of 18.3 m temporary girder arrangement on sleeper crib. Height from base level to rail level is 3.0 m. What speed restriction will be imposed.
15 Kmph speed restriction will be imposed.
3.   Write short notes on any two of the following -             
                              i.        Breathing length of LWR.             
                             ii.        Pre-Temping operation.    
                            iii.        Lubrication & Toe load of ERC.
Ans.- ( I ) Breathing length of LWR –
Breathing Length is that length at each end of LWR/CWR, which is subjected to expansion/contraction on account: of temperature variations. Usual breathing lengths in BG for different types of track structures and for different temperature zones as laid down.
 ( ii ) Pre Tamping Operations-
i) Layout including spacing of sleepers as per relevant drawings shall be ensured.
ii) The nose of the crossing may get battered or worn or the sleepers below it may get warped or bent. In such cases, the crossing should be reconditioned or replaced and sleepers below the crossing should be attended.
iii) High points on the turn out and approaches should be determined and general lift should be decided. General lift of minimum 10 mm must be given.
( iii ) Lubrication & Toe load of ERC -.
Toe load of ERC –
Elastic Rail Clips-J for use on Rail joints on concrete sleepers (Broad Gauge). The material specification, hardness depth of decarburisation and freedom from surface defects of Elastic Rail clip-J shall be as per Indian Railway standard. The clips shall be manufactured from silico-manganese spring steel rounds Gr. 55 S17 to IS : 3195 - 75 - "Steel for the Manufacture of Volute and belical spring (for Railway Rolling Stock)" by hot forming and shall be subsequently suitably heat treated. The clips shall conform to the requirements of the relevant drawing and the requirements of tests stipulated be rein after.
The normal toe load of g the clip shall be 300 kg at 3.5mm toe deflection. The weight of the clip shall be 915 gms approximately. clips shall be tested for toe load, with the help of toe load test arrangement approved by the purchaser/Inspecting agency. The toe load test arrangement and toe load values of the different clips shall comply with the requirements.  The toe-load range of ERC-MK III in Annexure VII has been revised to 850-1100 kg.

4.   Write short notes on any two of the following -              
                              i.        Gap Survey and adjustment of gap.    
                             ii.        SEJ maintenance.           
                            iii.        Pulling back creep.                 
Ans.- ( I ) Gap Survey and adjustment of Gap –  see on Page 10
( ii ) SEJ maintenance. -         
Once in a fortnight SEJs shall be checked packed and aligned if necessary. Oiling greasing of tongue and stock rails of SEJ and tightening of fastenings shall be done simultaneously. Movement of SEJs shall be checked and action taken for destressing if necessary. During his daily patrolling, keyman shall keep special watch on the SEJs falling in his beat
5.   Write short notes on any two of the following -              
                              i.        Cement pressure grouting.
                             ii.        Sliding centralized bearings.
                            iii.        Distressed Bridge diagram.
Ans.- ( I ) Cement pressure grouting -
Air compressor, Grout injecting machine, Flexible hose, Drilling equipment,
25 mm dia holes are drilled to a depth of 200 mm in a staggered manner in the area in which pressure grouting is to be done, particularly along cracks and hollow joints.
G.I. pipes 12 to 20 mm dia and 200 mm long with a threaded end are inserted and fixed with rich cement mortar.
Any crack and annular space around the G.I. pipes are sealed with rich cement mortar. All the cracks are cut open to a ‘V’ shaped groove, cleaned and sealed.
Grout holes should be sluiced with water one day before grouting so as to saturate the masonry. Sluicing is circulation and filling of water. This is carried out by using the same equipment as for grouting. All holes are plugged with wooden plugs. Bottom most plugs in holes 1, 2 and 9  are removed. Water is injected in hole 1 under pressure. When the water comes out through holes 2 and 9, injection of water is stopped. Plugs in holes 1 and 9 are restored. The process is repeated in all the holes. After 24 hours all plugs are removed to drain out excess water. The plugs are restored after draining.
Cement pressure grouting of masonry structures are to done by following equipments –
Cement grouting with water-cement ratio of 0.4 to 0.5 is done from bottom to top and left to right using grout injecting machine. The cement grout should be completely used within 15 minutes of mixing. The procedure for grouting is similar to sluicing in terms of removal and refixing of plugs and sequence of operation. The recommended proportion may be altered if admixtures are used to attain flowability of the grout. In case admixtures are used, manufacturer’s specifications should be adopted for grout proportioning. Curing with water is to be done for 14 days over the grouted portion.
( ii ) Sliding centralized bearings –
These are provided for plate girders generally up to span of 24.4 m . In this arrangement a curved or chamfered bearing plate is fixed to the bottom flange of the plate girder just below the bearing stiffener and the same rests on the bed plate fixed to the bed block. The bed plate at the free end has to be periodically greased to reduce the coefficient of friction. The rocking of the girder is facilitated by the curved of the bearing plate.
( iii ) Distressed Bridge Diagram
The Railways should maintain a diagram of distressed bridges containing relevant information.
6.   Write the name of various types of heavy on-track, track machines used on Central Railway for maintenance and relaying. Describe their use and output in a block period of three hours. 
Ans.- Various types of heavy track machines –
Following major on-track machines, which are in use on Indian Railways at present are as under
Tamping Machines -
(i) Plain Track Tamping Machines
( a )  06-16 Universal Tamping machine (UT).  ( b )  08-16 Unomatic.  ( c )  08-32 Duomatic.
( d )  09-32 Continuous Action Tamping Machine (CSM).  ( e )  09-3x Tamping Express
(ii) Points and Crossing Tamping Machines – ( a )  08-275 Unimat. ( b )  08-275-3S Unimat
(iii) Multi-purpose Tamper (MPT) - Dynamic Track Stabilizer (DTS)
Ballast Handling Machines - (i) Ballast Cleaning Machines – ( a ) RM-80 for plain track.
( b ) RM-76 for points and crossing.
(ii) Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machines – ( a ) FRM-80 Plasser Make.
( b ) KSC-600 Kershaw Make
(iii) Ballast Regulators.
Track Laying Machines – ( a ) Plasser Quick Relating System (PQRS).
( b ) Track Relaying Train (TRT).
Points & Crossing Changing Machine –
Turn out Renewal MC T-28 (AMECA-Make) , DST.
Sleeper Exchanger and Crane
Special Purpose Machines –
( a ) Mobile Flash Butt Welding Plant K-355 APT (Plasser and Theurer make).
( b ) Rail Grinding Machine (Loram).
( c ) Rail vac jumbo VM – 170 – Vacuum cleaning Machine.
Output of machines –
Name of machine
Output
Name of machine
Output
Duomatic
1600 Sl / hr.
Tamping Express
2700 Sl / hr.
Universal Tamping machine (UT
450 Sl / hr.
Continuous Action Tamping Machine (CSM)
2000 – 2400 Sl / Hr.
Unomatic
700 Sl / hr.
Unimat
1 T / out per 90 minitues.
Ballast Cleaning Machines – RM 80 & RM 76
550 cum / hr.
Shoulder Ballast Cleaning Machines – FRM-80&KSC-600
550 cum / hr.
7.   Write short notes on any two of the following -     
                              i.        Encroachment Inspection Register.
                             ii.        Standards of quality of Drinking water.
                            iii.        Plinth area limits for different type of quarters.
Ans.- ( i ) Encroachment inspection register -
The Section Engineer ( Works / P.Way ) should maintain details of encroachments in a register showing their incidence and removal with necessary details.  
One page of this register shall be allotted to each encroachment. A scale plan of the encroachment shall be provided on the facing side.
Once a case is opened the entries should not be discontinued unless and until the encroachment is removed.  A note to that effect should be made in the register.  The frequency of inspection of encroachment shall be at least once in 3 months.
Section Engineer (Works) shall give a certificate in the following proforma, once in three months which shall be verified and countersigned by the AEN. 
"I............................................., Section Engineer (Works) certify that I have inspected the Railway land in my section during the quarter ending        ..................and there have been no encroachments  except at the locations shown in this register, that have  been reported upon vide references given against each."
                                                                                                                    sd/-  
                                                                                                  Section Engineer (Works)       
AEN should submit every month the summary of the status of removal of encroachments to the Divisional Engineer.
Monthly progress regarding additions and removal of encroachments, filing  eviction cases and their progress in court of Estate Officer, in Civil Courts etc. should be submitted by Divisions to Head Quarter.
Encroachment plans to scale shall be made for every encroachment. These encroachment plans along with details of encroachment should be checked and signed by Section Engineer (Works)/AEN.  Records of such encroachment plans should be kept in the Divisional office and these encroachment plans should be handed over and taken over by Section Engineer (Works)/ AENs at the time of change of charge.
A copy of encroachment plan should be handed over by the Engineer (Works / P.Way) to SMs / RPF Inspectors / Workshop Supervisors in charge etc.                                                               
A copy of encroachment plan should be handed over by the AEN to SMs/RPF inspectors (where Section Engineer (Works) is not headquartered).
( ii ) Standards of quality of drinking water -
S. No.
Characteristics
Requirement
Permissible limit
  1.  
Turbidity 
10
-
  1.  
Colour  
25
-
  1.  
Taste & Odour                 
Unobjectionable
-
  1.  
P. H. Value                             
6.5  TO   8.
No Relaxation
  1.  
Total dissolved solids      
500 mg/l
2000
  1.  
Total hardness                  
300 mg / l
600
  1.  
Chlorides                                
1000 mg / l
-
  1.  
Sulphates                                
200 mg / l
400
  1.  
Fluorides  
1.0 mg / l
1.5
  1.  
Nitrates
45 mg / l
100 mg / l
  1.  
Calcium 
75 mg / l
200 mg / l
  1.  
Iron
1.0 mg / l
-
  1.  
Zinc
15 mg / l
-
  1.  
Minral Oil
0.03 mg / l
-
  1.  
Copper
0.05 mg / l
1.5 mg / l
  1.  
Arsenic
0.05 mg / l
No  Relaxation
  1.  
Cadmium
0.01 mg / l
-  do -
  1.  
Lead
- do -
-
  1.  
Residual free Chlorine
0.02 mg / l
-
( iii ) Plinth area limits for different type of quarters -
The Plinth area to be adopted for various types of quarters by Central Government departments is indicated in the Ministry of Works and housing memorandum dated 14.08.1975. The Railways may adopt their own economical type design for each category of quarters keeping in mind the economics in construction. The designs followed by Local bodies, Housing Boards, etc. will bring out the most economical local designs which could be referred for guidance.
 Scale of Plinth Area    
Type
Area of unit m2
Stair cash m2
Balcony m2
Cycle shad / scooter garage
Remarks
I
34.00
5.00
7.45
2.50
Cycle shed 100%
II
45.00
5.00
7.45
2.50
-Do-
III
55.75
5.00
7.45
4.20
Scooter shed 100%
IV
83.60
5.50
7.80
4.20
-Do-
V
139.35
6.00
9.85
18.00
75% garage
8.   Write short notes on any two of the following -                     
                              i.        Official Languages Implementation Committee.
                             ii.        Hindi Week.
                            iii.        Schemes of Cash Awards & incentives.
Ans.- ( I ) Official Languages Implementation Committee -
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( iii ) Schemes of Cash Awards & incentives -
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9.      Describe various types of patrollings and their purpose.          
Ans.- Types of Patrolling.
1. Keyman's Daily Patrol. Every portion of the permanent way shall be inspected daily on foot by the keyman of the beat in which the portion of the track falls. Provided that the interval between such inspections may, under special instructions, issued by Chief Engineer be increased to once in two days in the case of specified section of lines with light and infrequent traffic.
2. Gang Patrol during Abnormal Rainfall or Storm. This patrol should, in case of heavy rainfall, confine its inspection to known points of danger, such as cutting or culverts likely to scour, banks affected by tanks likely to breach and bridge approaches. In case of high winds.
3.Night Patrolling during Monsoon. During the monsoon, certain section of the railway line, as may be specified, shall be patrolled to detect damage by flood, such as breaches, settlements, slips and scours and immediate action taken to protect trains.                            
4.Security Patrolling during Civil Disturbance and on Special occasions - On apprehension of a Civil disturbance, the Divisional authorities should contact the local Civil authority and arrange, as circumstances may warrant for security patrolling of the railway line. This may be arranged on the pattern of the monsoon patrolling with modifications, as deemed necessary, in consultation with civil authorities.
      Security patrolling on special occasions should be carried out according to the special instructions issued by the administration.
     The primary duty of the patrolman employed on Security patrolling shall be to protect trains against any condition of danger, such as tampering with track or obstruction placed on line.
5.Hot weather Patrolling for L.W.R./C.W.R. Hot weather patrol is carried out when the rail temperature reaches td + 20 degree or above.
6.Watchmen at vulnerable locations. In addition to patrolmen, stationary watchmen are posted at known or likely locations of danger or trouble.

10.    Describe in brief annual inspection of major and minor bridges.

Ans.- Annual inspection of major and minor bridges -
The Assistant Engineer shall inspect every bridge major and minor on the sub division once a year after monsoon during the prescribed months and record results in ink in the Bridge inspection register.
Bridges the condition of which warrant special attention should be inspected more frequently.
Bridges entries of bridge inspection should made under the following heads –
            i.     Foundation & flooring – Extent or scour and damage.
           ii.     Masonry – Condition and extent of defects.
          iii.     Protective works – Scour slips or settlement.
          iv.     Bed Blocks – Tendency to movement and cracking.
           v.     Bearing and expansion arrangements – Defects in seatings and expansion arrangements.
          vi.     Steel work – Structural condition of girders and Paint.
         vii.     Sleepers – Condition and renewals required.
        viii.     Track – Defects in line and level.
Under each head the first entry should state whether the previous year’s notes have been attended.
And also following aspects should be noted while inspecting steel girder bridges –
            i.     Loss of camber – Plate girder of span above 35 m and open web girders are provided with camber to be checked by using dumpy level or precision level.
           ii.     Distortion.
          iii.     Loose Rivets – To be checked with the help of light hammer weighing 110 gms.
          iv.     Corrosion.
           v.     Fatigue Cracks.

11.  Draw neat free hand sketches bringing out the details of the reinforcement, the bending of the bars and their spacing, for a typical T – Beam with two adjacent panels of slab, assuming suitable data based on your experience. No design calculations are required.
Ans.-
12.   Draw a neat free hand sketch of a septic tank for 100 users and explain its working. There is no nallah river nearby. Indicate how you will treat the effluent.
Ans.- Working of ‘Septic tank’ - 
A septic tank is a masonry or concrete tank usually built under ground in which bacteria are specially cultured to hasten the put refection of the organic matter in sewage under controlled conditions. The bacteria are of the anaerobic type  those which flounce in the absence of air. The action of a septic tank is not to purify the solid organic matter in human excreta as is popularly and erroneously often believed but to liquefy it and incidentally to reduce its bulk.
Septic tank system is on a site disposal method which uses standard flushing. The septic tank acts as sedimentation cum digestion tank, Anaerobic digestion of the settled sludge occurs in its bottom zone.
 
Septic tank shall be air tight, the light and oxygen should be totally excluded. In order to create favorable atmosphere for anaerobic bacteria to develop the lighter part of the suspended matter in sewage floats on water colleted scum, the scum should not be disturbed for this purpose T out let and in let are provided. Scum board also may be provided at times to prevent scum being disturbed. Velocity of the sewage is reduced by allowing water to pass through opening at the bottom. The detention period of sewage is 10 to 12 hours.
Design for Size & shape of Septic Tank of 100 users –
Volume of sewage to be dealt – 100 x 0.086 = 8.60  M3 .
Depth to be provided – 2.10 m. ( Except free board  0.45 m. )
Plan of Tank = Volume / Depth = 8.60  / 2.10 = 4.10 m2.
Keeping length 3 times of a width, if B is the width then length ( L ) will be 3 B and Plan area =
 3 B2 = 4.10 m2.  , B = √ 4.10 / 3 = 1.17. Say 1.20 m. , Length of tank  L =  3 x 1.20 = 3.60 m.
Digestion chamber will be 1.20 x 1.20 m. , Areation Chamber will be 1.20 x 2.40 m.
Sludge chamber will be 1/3 of Volume of septic tank. Hence – 8.60  / 3 = 2.87 m3.
Depth of Sludge chamber = 2.10 + 0.45 = 2.55 m. ,
Plan area of Sludge chamber = 2.87 / 2.55 = 1.13 m2.  
Size of Sludge chamber - √ 1.13 = 1.06 m. say 1.10 m. Sludge chamber will be 1.10 x 1.10 m.
Hence Dimensions will be as follows -
Total depth of tank including space for accumulation of gases – 2.10 + 0.45 = 2.55 m.
Depth of Water ( H ) = 2.10 m.,   Length of Septic Tank = 3.60 m. including 1.20 m. Digestion Chamber and 2.40 m. Areation Chamber and Width of septic tank B = 1.20 m.
Size of Sludge Chamber – 1.10 x1.10 m. and depth of sludge chamber 2.55 + 0.45 = 3.00 m.
Disposal of affluent from the septic tank –
Supernatant liquid has to under go treatment in a soak pit / filter bed. Use of septic tank with out follow up treatment is not permitted, as the effluent from the septic tank is hazardous from the point of view of health and pollution, since it is usually not possible to provide sock pit / filter bed in built up. Affluent coming out from septic tank, is still foul in nature and needs further treatment in a soak pit / filter bed for further purification, before it is left to large body of water for dilution.
13.   Write short notes on any three of the following -     
                              i.        Completion Report.
                             ii.        Cannons of Financial Property.
                            iii.        August Review.
                           iv.        Write off Sanction.
                            v.        Works Programme.
Ans.- ( I ) Completion  Report :-
The object of a completion report is to compare the cost of work actually constructed with those provided for in the last sanctioned estimate. A completion report of a project duly verified by the accounts officer should be submitted to the Railway board within eighteen months after the end of the financial half-year in which the completion estimate is submitted. It should state the expenditure in the same details as abstract estimate sanctioned by the Railway board and should indicate material modification if any.
The completion report should be prepared in prescribed form and brief explanation should be furnished for: -
                   i.Excess of not less than 10% or Rs25000/- which ever is less over the estimated provision under each work.
                  ii.Saving of not less than20% or Rs1,00,000/- which ever is less occurring under each sub-work.
A completion report for work costing Rs one crore and less should be subjected to the detailed instructions issued by the Railway administration and should be prepared in the same form for works costing above Rs one crore. It should compare the actual expenditure incurred with the sanctioned amount and should give details under each sub-work. Brief explanation should be furnished for all excess and savings of over 5% or Rs10,000/- which ever is less. A completion report duly verified by the accounts officer should ordinarily be submitted to the authority that accorded the administrative approval to the work for information or regularization.
( ii ) Canones of financial Property –
In exercise of their financial powers the sanctioning authorities must pay regard to the following principles –
  1. The expenditure should not prima facie be more than the occasion demands, and that every govt. servant should exercise the same vigilance in respect of the expenditure of his own money.
  2. No authority should exercise its powers of sanctioning expenditure to pass an order, which will directly, or indirectly be to its own advantage.
  3. Public money should not be utilized for benefit of a particular person or section of the community.
  4. The allowances such as travelling allowance sanctioned to staff should be so regulated that it should not become a source of earning of the recipient.
( iii ) August Review –
 This is one of the Budgetary reviewed stages. This is conducted in the month of August every year by all the spending units / executives to see that any modification are necessary in the allotments placed at the disposal at the beginning of the year.
( iv ) Write off sanction –
When ever any sums become accrued due to the railway for any kind of services rendered of sums due to the recovered under extent procedure from staff / Parties considered as irrecoverable either fully or partially are said to be written off under competent authorities sanction with out collection of effecting recoveries. The communications authorizing non recovery / not collection are called write off sanction.
( v ) Works programme –
Railway are a growing, dynamic organization. The development of facilities amenities etc have to keep pace with the growth of goods and passenger traffic. To plan in advance and execute such development investment decisions relating to certain acquisition and replacement of assets are processed through Works programme.
The railway board lay down the financial limits under  various plan heads which the railway administration are required to make out their programme for the year. These proposals initiated by the concerned departs either individually or severally are vests by the FA & CAO and approved by the GM for submission to railway board as the Preliminary works programme. The board discusses the proposals with the GM and the works and outlays during the ensuring budget year are decided upon.
The states of investment planning and preparation of the final works programme are-
              i.     Formulation of schemes as advance planning.
             ii.     Submission of major schemes for advance seruting and clearance by the Railway Board.
            iii.     Preparation of Preliminary works programme within programme within the financial ceiling.
           iv.     Discussion with the Railway Board and there after submission of final works programme.
14.   Write short notes on any three of the following -        
                              i.        Stock Verification Sheets.
                             ii.        Operating Ratio.
                            iii.        Works Register.
                           iv.        Assessed Rent.
                            v.        DRF.
Ans.- ( I ) Stock Verification Sheets  -
The proper custody and accountal of stores is the prime duty and function of an executive or the stockholder. To ensure this verification of stock is done either departmentally or by the Accounts stock verifier. The stock verification sheets are prepared giving the numerical balances of items as in the ledgers and actual stock. The verification between ledger balances and actual stock are clearly brought out. The verifier and the stockholder jointly sign these sheets.
One copy of the sheet is kept with the stock verifier and three copies are handed over to the stockholder. The stock holder is required to offer his explanation for variation and recon cite the discrepancies and submit the sheets in duplicate to the divisional office for scrutiny and acceptance. These sheets are then forwarded by divisional office along with their remark to the Accounts.
Clearance of out standing S.V. Sheets is closely watched by the department and also by accounts. At the time of handing over charge the stock holder is required to clear the out standing S.V. Sheets for any reason the same should be recorded in the handing over notes by the stock holder.
( ii ) Operating Ratio –
Operating Ratio is the ratio which the total working expenses excluding suspense of a Railway bear to its gross earning or in other words represents the percentage of working expenses in this connection include appropriation to DRF and Pension fund as well. This is used to measure the efficiency of the railway.
( iii ) Works Register –
This is a collective record of expenditure designed :
(i)         for effecting control of expenditure on works with reference to estimates, by facilitating comprise on between the expenditure incurred on each work and the detailed provision made in the estimate for work;
(ii)        for effecting budgetary control, by facilitating a comparison between the budget allotment for the work and the actual expenditure to the end of the month; and
(iii)       to enable any material modification occurring being spotted.
This register should show the amount of estimate sanctioned, the budget allotment and details of expenditure on each work by heads of accounts and in addition under sub-heads of estimates in case of track renewal works estimated to cost Rs. 3 lakhs and over and Rs. 1 lakh and over In the case of other works. In this register sub-heads of estimate estimated to cost less than Rs. 10,000 need not be separately detailed, hut may be grouped together as may be found 'the convenient. The Register may be arranged by detailed heads of classification (for works falling under the demand relating to creation and replacement of assets) separate folios being set apart for each work. At the close of every month the Register of Works should be totalled up and the monthly, yearly and 'up-to-date' totals for each work struck. The Register of Works should be preserved for a period of 10 years.
( iv ) Assessed Rent -
The assessed rent for each class of quarters should be fixed at six per cent of the total cost of all the quarters in that class- whether the total cost is charged to Capital Development Fund or Open Line Works Revenue.
In the case of officers' quarters all the quarters on each Railway should be pooled in one class and the rent to be charged for such pooled accommodation calculated on the floor area basis. The assessed rent of staff quarters should also be fixed on floor area basis wherever possible. Substandard quarters not provided with essential basic amenities such as kitchen, store, lavatory and without source of water supply in the vicinity and with very low roof should be excluded from the general, pool of quarters and constituted into a separate pool and their rent fixed at six per cent of the total outlay on such quarters.
Rent should be reassessed once in five years on the basis of the total cost as on 31st March, and for the purpose of working out the details a period of two years is allowed.  

 ( v ) Depreciation Reserve Fund ( DRF ) -   See on page 24
15.   Write short notes on any three of the following -       
                              i.        Part I & Part II Audit Reports.
                             ii.        Advice Note.
                            iii.        Variation Statement in Contracts.
                           iv.        Non-Schedule Items.
                            v.        Briefing Note.
Ans.-
( I ) Part I & Part II Audit Reports –
The DAuO conduct inspection of the executive and subordinate offices of the entire division once in 3 years. Programme is made in advance and the concerned officers are advised in advance so as to enable them to keep their records ready.
The reports, as a result of such inspections consist of two parts –
Part I – Contains more important irregularities.
Part II – Contains minor irregularties.
The final disposal of Part II audit notes rests with the Accounts Officer and no reply to the divisional audit Officer is necessary. However, when required these should be made available to the DAuO.
Replied to Part I are to be submitted by the Divisional Officers to the DAuO through the Divisional Accounts Officer, as early as possible ( within 2 months ) indicating there in the action taken. The closure of the objections rests with the ADuO.

( ii ) Advice Notes –
Advice Notes to prepared on form no. S- 1539 returning to stores. Separate Advice Note should be prepared for each group and for new, second-hand, crap and condemned materials and should show the nomenclature and other particulars of the stores, the head or heads of account to be credited as well as the rates and value of the stores.  Separate serial numbers should be given for Advice Notes originating from each shop.
The foreman returning to stores should retain one copy as his block foil send the remaining four foils along with the materials to sub-ward-keeper.
The materials should be checked with the Advice Notes and arranged for inspection and valuation by the Depot Officer or a gazetted officer on his behalf.  Immediately after the stores the stores in stock are valued, the sub-ward-keeper should complete the four foils in this respect, take into stock (either his own or that of the parent ward) and initial the advice Notes and send them to the depot office through the parent ward where they should be assigned R.O. numbers as usual.
The four foil, after signature by the Depot Officer or a gazetted officer on his behalf, should be disposed of, as follows:-
The first foil retained as record,
The second foil sent to the returning officer,
The third and fourth foils sent to the Stores Accounts Office after the numerical ledgers    
have been posted.
( iii ) Variation statement in contracts -
The Engineer on behalf of the Railway shall be entitled by order in writing to enlarge or extend, diminish or reduce the works or make any alterations in their design, character position, site, quantities, dimensions or in the method of their execution or in the combination and use of materials for the execution thereof or to order any additional work to be done or any works not to be done and the contractor will not be entitled to any compensation for any increase/reduction in the quantities of work but will be paid only for the actual amount of work done and for approved materials supplied against a specific order.
Unless otherwise specified in the special conditions of the contract, the accepted variation in quantity of each individual item of the contract would be up to 25% of the quantity originally contracted, except in case of foundation work. The contractor shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates and shall not be entitled to any claim or any compensation whatsoever up to the limit of 25% variation in quantity of individual item of works.
In case of earthwork, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of earth work and variation in the quantities of individual classifications of soil shall not be subject to this limit. In case of foundation work, no variation limit shall apply and the work shall be carried out by the contractor on agreed rates irrespective of any variation.
In case of Zonal work the limit of 20 % variation in quantity of individual item of works and 25% variation on work order subject to not exceed from maximum limit of work order cost 1 lack. 
Variation in Contract Quantities are as under -                              
Up to + 25% of Agr. Value: Same Rates
> + 25% and up to + 40% : 2% reduction in rates
> + 40% and up to + 50% : Additional 2% reduction
Execution of quantities beyond + 50% of overall Agreement Value to be done through fresh tender or by negotiating rates with existing contractor.
If variation is beyond –25% of C.V. negotiation is not required to be done
Include regulatory mechanism (for variations) in contract itself.

( iv ) Non-Scheduled Items -
The practice of calling item wise rates to be quoted by the tenderer should be avoided as for as possible. It is however observed that large number of non-scheduled items is being operated for various types of works. Absence of a suitable item in the master schedule is cited as the main reason for adopting non-scheduled items.
It is further noticed that proper care and attention is not being given to the operation of NS items in respect of description, specifications, mode of measurements, rate etc. causing ambiguity and vagueness in NS items which, at times, may result in over payment to the contractors.
With a view to safeguarding against the above inadequacies, it has been decided that introduction of NS items will henceforth be subject to the following: -
  1. NS items shall be included in the tender with the specific approval of Sr. DEN (Co) / Dy. CE (C).
  2. NS items shall be operated only when it is unavoidable & should satisfy the following criteria –
a)     No item with similar description is available in the master schedule, which can serve the purpose.
b)    The description of NS item is not prepared by combining more than one SSR item.
c)    The descriptions of NS items are not prepared by splitting the existing SSR item into more than one NS item.
d)    Wherever it is expedient the NS item can be formed by combining / splitting the existing SSR items with the specific approval of HQ.
  1. The description and the specifications of NS item should be complete & unambiguous. No component of NS item should be overlapping with the description of any of the existing SSR items included in the tender, since such overlapping may lead to double payment for that particular component of NS item.
  2. Special conditions specific to the NS items should be included in the tender agreement.
  3. Mode of measurement of NS items should be clearly spelt out.
  4. Proper rate analysis should be prepared for the NS items taking into account the prevailing market rates as well as the past accepted rates for identical NS items duly modified for geographical and conditions which may influence the rates.
  5. Basic rate for NS item shall be prepared at par with standard schedule of rates in items. For this purpose the market rate or the analysed rate of the NS item shall be discounted in accordance with percentage above / below accepted recently for SSR items of concerned. The basic rate thus worked out shall be vetted by Associate finance.
  6. In all the new tenders, the tenderer should be advised to quote common percentage above / below for SSR items as well as for NS items. Such a common percentage of rates will facilitate quicker evaluation of tender and its finalisation. Besides the possibility of vitiation of tender as a result of variation in quantities of different items will also be eliminated.

( v ) Briefing Note –
After the tender opening the preparation of briefing notes is another serious activity in the process of tender finalisation. The briefing note is prepared by the executive office giving all facts, details, conditions, etc to assist the tender committee in finalisation of the tenders.
The tabulated comparative statement and briefing note both in duplicate together with the original tenders shall be sent for scrutiny to the section officer deputed for the purpose. The statement should be signed by him in token of his verification.

16.   Describe briefly the main features of Workmen Compensation Act.

Ans.- Workmen’s Comensation Act -                         
Workmen’s Comensation Act an act to provide for the payment by certain classes of Employers to their workmen of compensation for injury by accident.
This act applies to all such workers who are connected with the operations and maintenance of vehicular traffic or a movement of vehicular traffic.
if wholly dependant on the earnings of the workman at the time of his death, a son or a daughter who has attained the age of 18 years entitle for appointment on compensation ground..
The following employees are not coming under the provision of this act.
              i.     A Railway servent employed in any clerical capacity.
             ii.     Apprentices not governed by apprentice Act 1961.
            iii.     Persons empoloyed in the armd forces.
           iv.     The worker who is not connected with the trade or business of the employer.
Under following circumstance the employer will not be responsible to pay the amount of compensation to the worker, if accident is attributed to –
1.   Workers being in the drunken stage or under the enfluence of any intoxication drugs.
2.   Willful disobedient of safety rules / order.
3.   Willful removal or non use of safety devices, provided for safety purpose of workman.
If workman contract any disease which is treated as occupational disease the contracting of disease shall be treated as an injury by an accident.

17.   Write short notes on any three of the following -       
                              i.        Running Allowance.
                             ii.        Breach of rest allowance.
                            iii.        Break down allowance.
                           iv.        Night Duty allowance.
                            v.        National Holiday allowance.
Ans.-
( I ) Running Allowance –
Running Allowance is granted to railway servant whose duties are in running trains or engines and are connected with the charge of moving train or engines. Running Allowance will include the following –
  1. Kilometrage allowance – This is granted to running staff for being employed on running duties at the specified rates computed on the basis of distance traveled in term of kilometers.
  2. Allowance in lieu of kilometrage – This is granted to running staff with a view to compensate them for the loss of kilometrage.
  3. Special compensatory allowances to meet out of pocket expenses incurred at out station.

( ii ) Breach of rest allowance
The running staff will be granted Breach of rest allowance if they are booked for running duty before completing 16 hour’s rest at head quarter provided it is immediately preceded by a full term of 8 hours or more of duty. The allowance will be payable at the rate of 2 hours for every hour or part of an hour by which the rest availed of actually falls short of 16 hours. Periods of less then half an hour shall be disregarded and these of half an hour  or more shall be rounded off to an hour for the purpose of this rule. Each period of under rest should be treated as a separated unit and rounded off for purposes of payment.
Breach of rest allowance will not be payable for breach of rest at outstations.

( iii ) Break down allowances  -
Break down allowance is an allowance given to relief train , Electrical staff and certain categories of other non gazetted staff employed in running sheds and C & W depot, who are earmarked for attending to break down duties in connection with a break down trains or engine. These staff shall be given a break down allowance on monthly basis at the rates prescribed. Moreover they will also be given other concessions as below wherever employed on break down duties. These other concessions will also be admissible to other non gazetted staff besides those earmarked, whenever they are employed on break down duties which may be either in connection with breakdown duties of a train or engine or breach or wash away on the line which interrupts normal traffic or break down of normal traffic on running lines due to :
  1. Snapping of overhead electric traction/ lines which involves calling of tower wagon or breakdown lorry.
  2. Damage or bursting of points,
  3. Break down of interlocked lifting barriers and
  4. Total interruption of communications, Telecommunications or of power supply. 
These other concessions are as under –
a.   Supply of free food departmentally or other wise during the period the staff are engaged in break down duties.
b.   Payment for overtime work in accordance with the normal rates, time taken in traveling to the site of accident and break shall also be reckoned for payment of over time.
c.   Payment of full days daily allowance/ traveling allowance for attending to break down duties with out stipulation that they should be out of head quarters beyond 8 kms for a period exceeding 12 consecutive hours ( full days DA/TA will be allowed even when the staff attended to break down duties at their place of work/ Headquarters station limits).
Where it is not possible to make arrangements for supply of free food to the staff attending to break down duties they may be paid cash in lieu the rate there of being fixed by GM in consultation with FA&CAO.
Casual labour employed on break down duties will also be given free food in addition to the higher rates of wages which may be fixed depending upon the circumstances, as also TA/DA if other wise admissible under the normal rules as per regular employees.
Free food supplied to staff attending to accidents duties may also be supplied to gazetted officers. No special arrangement will however be made for officers separately nor cash reimbursement in lieu of free food will be permissible.

( iv ) Night duty allowance
All Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ staff classified as intensive, continuous and essentially intermittent under the Hours of Employment Regulations, Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ workshop staff, and supervisory staff and sisters in charge working on regular shift duty and Group ‘C’ staff, working in confidential capacity will get weightage at the rate of 10 minutes for every hour of night duty between 22 to 06 hours and shall be paid Night duty allowance for such weightage at the rates prescribed.

( v ) National Holiday allowance –
Non gazetted staff who do not enjoy public holiday should be considered entitled to the nine national holidays. As these staff cannot be relieved of their duties on those days, they will be compensated for working on those days by grant of additional payment at the rates prescribed. This payment will be made even when an employee has worked for a short period during a national Holiday, or if the day of rest of staff falls on such day, or in case of relieving staff.

18.   What are the different ( Minor and Major ) penalties under D & A Rules. What is the underlying intention, in your opinion for grouping the penalties under two heads - Minor and Major?                   
Ans.-
Minor Penalties :-
1)    Censure.
2)    Withholding of Promotions for a specified period.
3)      Recovery from pay of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the government or railway administration by negligence or breach of orders.
       ( a ) Withholding of Privilege Passes or PTO’s or both.
      ( b ) Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for period not exceeding 3 years. NC and not adversely affecting pension.
4)    Withholding of increments of pay for a specified Period ( NC / C )
Major Penalties :-
5)    Reduction to a lower stage in the time scale of pay for a specified period ( NC / C ).
6)    Reduction to lower time scale of Pay, grade, post or service with or without further directions regarding conditions of restoration to the grade or post or service from which the railway servant was reduced and his seniority and pay on such restoration.
7)    Compulsory retirement.
8)    Removal from service.
9)    Dismissal from service.
There are nine items of  penalties under Rule 6 of  D & A Rules, actually there are 10 kinds of  penalties shown there in of these 5 ( but covered under the heading Major penalties. The latter 5 penalties and 5 only under the heading under the provision of Article 311 of the constitution of India and these being of serious nature have been grouped under the heading Major penalties making their distinction from the rest of the penalties which are not of so serious nature as to effect the status and position of the person when subjected to such penalty and are not covered by the said Article of the constitution of India.

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Q.8.        ( d )  Explain the term ‘Declaration under Service Conduct Rules’.   
6. a)  Draw a free hand sketch of conventional SEJ on concrete sleeper and show the most common location of fracture.                                                    
10.   Draw a neat free hand sketch of channel sleeper, including fixing arrangement of track and girder.                                                                        
13.   Write short notes on any three of the following –
( I ) SRSF
(iii ) RSF
3.   Write short notes on any two of the following -             
  ( iii )Lubrication & Toe load of ERC.
4.   Write short notes on any two of the following -              
( ii ) SEJ maintenance.          
( iii )Pulling back creep